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Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 0927-6505, 11/2018, Volume 102, pp. 25 - 31
Stochastic acceleration of cosmic rays in second order Fermi processes is usually considered too slow to reach ultra-high energies, except in specific cases.... 
Hillas’ Plot | Fermi-acceleration | Cosmic ray sources | Acceleration of particles | UHECR | Spectrum | LIGHT | PARTICLE-ACCELERATION | ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS | INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE | SCATTERING | LOBES | Hillas' Plot | PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS | Magnetic fields | Physics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
Journal Article
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2100-014X, 2017, Volume 135, p. 2004
As LOFAR has shown, using a dense array of radio antennas for detecting extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth’s atmosphere makes it... 
Cosmic ray showers | Uncertainty | LOFAR | Bandwidth | Radio antennas | Cosmic rays | Antenna arrays
Journal Article
Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, 01/2015, Volume 115, Issue 1, p. 015002
htmlabstractWe derive that lightning can start if the electric field is 15% of the breakdown field, and if elongated ice particles of 6 cm length and 100 free... 
PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | STREAMER DISCHARGES
Journal Article
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 5001
We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation... 
Radio emission | Cosmic ray showers | Radio signals | Cosmic ray propagation
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2100-014X, 2019, Volume 216, p. 2013
The LOw Frequency ARay (LOFAR) is a multi-purpose radio antenna array aimed to detect radio signals in the frequency range 10 - 240 MHz, covering a... 
Radio signals | LOFAR | Radio antennas | Density | Cosmic rays | Primary cosmic rays | Cosmic ray showers | Simulation | Dependence | Frequency analysis | Frequency spectrum | Frequency ranges | Antenna arrays
Journal Article
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2100-014X, 2019, Volume 216, p. 4005
The radio signals emitted by Extensive Air Showers have been successfully used for the last decade by LOFAR to reconstruct the properties of the primary cosmic... 
Cosmic ray showers | Radio signals | Algorithms | LOFAR | Radiation counters | Real time | Cosmic rays | Primary cosmic rays
Journal Article
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135
As LOFAR has shown, using a dense array of radio antennas for detecting extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere makes it... 
Physics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics
Conference Proceeding
Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 0927-6505, 01/2015, Volume 60, pp. 13 - 24
Measuring radio emission from air showers provides excellent opportunities to directly measure all air shower properties, including the shower development. To... 
Radio emission | Lateral distribution | Cosmic rays | LOFAR | Air shower | ENERGY | ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS | COSMIC-RAYS | RADIATION | PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS
Journal Article
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, 07/2019, Volume 124, Issue 13, pp. 7255 - 7269
Lightning streamers and leaders need thermal electrons to initiate, but free electrons are extremely rare in the wet air of a thundercloud. Here we analyze the... 
lightning | thundercloud | electron seed | lightning inception | hydrometeors | DISTRIBUTIONS | UNIVERSALITY | ENERGY | INITIATION | CORONA | METEOROLOGY & ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES | IONIZATION | Atmospheric pressure | Streamers | Free electrons | Measuring instruments | Leader currents | Air | Cosmic ray showers | Lightning | Hydrometeors | Extensive air showers | Stochasticity | Electric fields | Altitude | Electrons
Journal Article
Proceedings of Science, 2017
Conference Proceeding
Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, 06/2015, Volume 115, Issue 1
We derive that lightning can start if the electric field is 15% of the breakdown field, and if elongated ice particles of 6 cm length and 100 free electrons... 
Journal Article
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 136, p. 2012
Radio detection as well as modeling of cosmic rays has made enormous progress in the past years. We show this by using the subtle circular polarization of the... 
Weather | Radio emission | Cosmic ray showers | Circular polarization | Emission analysis | LOFAR | Fair weather | Cosmic rays
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 2003
As of 2023, the low-frequency part of the Square Kilometre Array will go online in Australia. It will constitute the largest and most powerful low-frequency... 
Radio emission | Cosmic ray showers | Astrophysics | Antennas | Astronomy | Cosmic rays
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 1009
In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique... 
Particle density (concentration) | Cosmic ray showers | Dipole antennas | Density distribution | Cosmic rays | LOFAR
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 4004
One of the main ways to use radio to detect Ultra High Energy Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays is the Lunar Askaryan technique, that uses the Moon as a target and... 
Radio signals | Moon | Neutrinos | Radio telescopes | LOFAR | Nanosecond pulses | Cosmic rays | Total Electron Content
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 01012
The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When... 
Cosmic ray showers | Radio | Error analysis | Sea level | Refractivity
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 1011
Cosmic rays entering the Earth’s atmosphere produce Extensive Air Showers, which emit a radio signal through Geo-magnetic radiation and Askaryan emission. At... 
Cosmic ray showers | Radio signals | Emission analysis | LOFAR | Radio antennas | Background noise | Real time | Cosmic rays | Antenna arrays
Conference Proceeding
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, 03/2017, Volume 135, p. 1010
The high number density of radio antennas at the LOFAR core in Northern Netherlands allows to detect radio signals emitted by cosmic ray induced air showers,... 
Cosmic ray showers | Radio signals | Surface detectors | Correlation analysis | LOFAR | Fluorescence | Frequency spectrum | Radio antennas | Cosmic rays | Primary cosmic rays
Conference Proceeding
Proceedings of Science, 2017
Conference Proceeding
by Aab, A and Abreu, P and Aglietta, M and Ahn, E.J and Al Samarai, I and Albuquerque, I.F.M and Allekotte, I and Allison, P and Almela, A and Alvarez Castillo, J and Alvarez-Muñiz, J and Alves Batista, R and Ambrosio, M and Aminaei, A and Anastasi, G.A and Anchordoqui, L and Andringa, S and Aramo, C and Arqueros, F and Arsene, N and Asorey, H and Assis, P and Aublin, J and Avila, G and Awal, N and Badescu, A.M and Baus, C and Beatty, J.J and Becker, K.H and Bellido, J.A and Berat, C and Bertaina, M.E and Bertou, X and Biermann, P.L and Billoir, P and Blaess, S.G and Blanco, A and Blanco, M and Blazek, J and Bleve, C and Blümer, H and Boháčová, M and Boncioli, D and Bonifazi, C and Borodai, N and Brack, J and Brancus, I and Bretz, T and Bridgeman, A and Brogueira, P and Buchholz, P and Bueno, A and Buitink, S and Buscemi, M and Caballero-Mora, K.S and Caccianiga, B and Caccianiga, L and Candusso, M and Caramete, L and Caruso, R and Castellina, A and Cataldi, G and Cazon, L and Cester, R and Chavez, A.G and Chiavassa, A and Chinellato, J.A and Chudoba, J and Cilmo, M and Clay, R.W and Cocciolo, G and Colalillo, R and Coleman, A and Collica, L and Coluccia, M.R and Conceição, R and Contreras, F and Cooper, M.J and Cordier, A and Coutu, S and Covault, C.E and Cronin, J and Dallier, R and Daniel, B and Dasso, S and Daumiller, K and Dawson, B.R and De Almeida, R.M and De Jong, S.J and De Mauro, G and De Mello Neto, J.R.T and De Mitri, I and De Oliveira, J and De Souza, V and Del Peral, L and Deligny, O and Dhital, N and Di Giulio, C and Di Matteo, A and Diaz, J.C and ... and Pierre Auger Collaboration
Physical Review D, ISSN 2470-0010, 06/2016, Volume 93, Issue 12
The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These... 
EXTENSIVE AIR-SHOWERS | COREAS | ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS | LOFAR | CODALEMA | MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS | EMISSION | PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS | Reconstruction | Energy measurement | Radio stations | Radio | Air showers | Arrays | Estimators | Augers
Journal Article
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