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by Heimer, Gali and Kerätär, Juha M and Riley, Lisa G and Balasubramaniam, Shanti and Eyal, Eran and Pietikäinen, Laura P and Hiltunen, J. Kalervo and Marek-Yagel, Dina and Hamada, Jeffrey and Gregory, Allison and Rogers, Caleb and Hogarth, Penelope and Nance, Martha A and Shalva, Nechama and Veber, Alvit and Tzadok, Michal and Nissenkorn, Andreea and Tonduti, Davide and Renaldo, Florence and Bamshad, Michael J and Leal, Suzanne M and Nickerson, Deborah A and Anderson, Peter and Annable, Marcus and Blue, Elizabeth Marchani and Buckingham, Kati J and Chin, Jennifer and Chong, Jessica X and Cornejo, Rodolfo and Davis, Colleen P and Frazar, Christopher and He, Zongxiao and Jarvik, Gail P and Jimenez, Guillaume and Johanson, Eric and Kolar, Tom and Krauter, Stephanie A and Luksic, Daniel and Marvin, Colby T and McGee, Sean and McGoldrick, Daniel J and Patterson, Karynne and Perez, Marcos and Phillips, Sam W and Pijoan, Jessica and Robertson, Peggy D and Santos-Cortez, Regie and Shankar, Aditi and Slattery, Krystal and Shively, Kathryn M and Siegel, Deborah L and Smith, Joshua D and Tackett, Monica and Wang, Gao and Wegener, Marc and Weiss, Jeffrey M and Wernick, Riana I and Wheeler, Marsha M and Yi, Qian and Kraoua, Ichraf and Panteghini, Celeste and Valletta, Lorella and Garavaglia, Barbara and Cowley, Mark J and Gayevskiy, Velimir and Roscioli, Tony and Silberstein, Jonathon M and Hoffmann, Chen and Raas-Rothschild, Annick and Tiranti, Valeria and Anikster, Yair and Christodoulou, John and Kastaniotis, Alexander J and Ben-Zeev, Bruria and Hayflick, Susan J and U Of Washington Ctr For Mendelian and University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics
The American Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 0002-9297, 12/2016, Volume 99, Issue 6, pp. 1229 - 1244
Journal Article
by Annabella V Salvador-Kelly and Nancy S Kwon and Matthew Wheatley and Type I and Type II and Type III and Type IV and Patient Evaluation and In general, patients with ongoing neurologic symptoms are not candidates for the OU These patients meet criteria for inpatient care, and often require extensive nursing care and consultation Although there are exceptions, most patients with new fixed neurologic finding have had a stroke or other insult and benefit from care on a stroke unit New inability to ambulate Altered mental status New neurologic findings (persistent) Patients receiving inpatient-type procedures, such as renal or liver biopsy Post-operative recovery Patients who meet inpatient criteria Geriatric patients represent an increasing population that presents to the ED Out of 136 million ED visits per year, more than 20 million are patients who are age 65 years and older5 Elderly patients who present to the ED often use more resources because they typically have complicated medical histories, are on multiple medications, and require more social services57 They are more likely to have depression, falls, and functional and cognitive impairment58,59 Cognitive impairment, such as dementia and delirium, accounts for up to 40% of geriatric patients59-61 These age-associated problems are often unappreciated by emergency physicians due to time constraints and lack of education62 The ED is often an infeasible place to perform such assessments because of the need to rapidly assess and treat patients An OU can be an appropriate setting to perform a more comprehensive geriatric screening assessment In one study by Foo et al, performing the geriatric screening identified serious unmet needs in more than 10% of patients in their study group63 The inability to identify their needs puts them at greater risk for premature discharge, adverse events, and readmission63 Geriatric assessments focus on investigating the patient’s medical, functional, and social status and can include fall risk, mobility and ability to perform activities of daily living, visual acuity, hearing assessment, and nutritional and swallowing evaluation63 Geriatric patients often are admitted to the hospital when the diagnosis is unclear or further monitoring is needed, but they can be more vulnerable to complications from hospitalization such as nosocomial infections, decubitus ulcers, deep vein thrombosis, functional decline, and other adverse outcomes18,64,65 OUs can be utilized to monitor and further evaluate the geriatric patient who presents with unclear presentations63,66,67 In one study by Ross et al, the most common diagnoses in elderly patients placed in an OU were chest pain (24%), dehydration (117%), syncope (65%), back pain (46%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (38%)67 Compared to younger patients, the LOS and admission rate for these geriatric patients was higher67 OUs that provide this level of care for elders often have extensive resources, especially social work and care management In addition, an emergency pharmacist can be of great help in this setting, as many of these patients are on multiple medications Conditions in older adults to consider for exclusion to the OU include: likely need for placement in a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility, failure to thrive, exacerbation of chronic problems, inability to ambulate, altered mental status, and a projected LOS of greater than 24 hours66 CMS requires a 3-day hospital stay prior to placement68 For Medicare beneficiaries, copayments are significantly higher for outpatient services, and placing geriatric patients in the OU may cause financial hardship68,69 The number of pediatric OUs in the nation is not reported on a national basis, but the literature and healthcare reform supports their increased utilization70 Limited data show that pediatric OUs exist in almost 39% of free-standing children’s hospitals, 39% of hospitals with separate pediatric wards, and approximately 4% of hospitals without pediatric wards71-73 Pediatric OUs are emerging as an alternative site of care for children with selected diagnoses Previous data have shown that pediatric patients often are hospitalized for brief durations74-76 Nearly one-third of pediatric admissions are hospitalized for 1 night or less76,77 ED visits for patients younger than 15 years account for close to 25 million visits per year, and for patients between 15-24 years, account for more than 22 million visits per year5 For these reasons, pediatric OUs are an ideal setting for monitoring serial physical examinations, awaiting consultations, and administering short courses of treatment78 The most frequent pediatric OU diagnoses include abdominal pain, allergic reactions, asthma, bronchiolitis, croup, dehydration, gastroenteritis, minor trauma such as head trauma, and toxic ingestions70,79 Children with painful vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis may be admitted to the OU Macy et al attempted to summarize the literature on standard outcome measures for pediatric OUs79 The study found that the metrics for pediatric OUs are not clearly defined and are variable in the current literature79 These metrics included LOS, admission rates, return visit rates, and costs79 Prior data show that less than 25% of pediatric OU patients are converted to inpatient status79,80 The admission rate may vary depending upon the diagnosis Admission rates reportedly range from as low as 5% for croup and head injury, to approximately 50% for respiratory diseases such as asthma, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis2,70,75,79,81-83 Although the return visit rate is inconsistently defined, the rates range from 001% to 5%, with return time frames ranging from 48 hours to 1 month84-92 The OU presents a golden opportunity to educate patients on their disease processes and on preventive medicine Patients who can especially benefit include vulnerable patient populations such as the elderly, patients with poor access to healthcare and limited health literacy, and those with multiple risk factors for disease56,60 In a pilot demonstration project by Silverman et al, the OU was utilized to identify patients with previously undiagnosed dysglycemia using a HbA1C, initiate treatment and referrals, and educate patients about their disease56 As an extension of this project, diabetes champions were also identified and trained to become diabetes educators Limited literature exists regarding utilization of the OU to educate patients There is opportunity to expand education for diseases and high-risk behaviors that pose significant morbidity and mortality Some of these areas include education on smoking cessation, alcohol dependence, and chronic diseases such diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke 56,93-95 Such educational interventions can lead not only to improved knowledge, but also to increased satisfaction with their care96 OUs play a critical role in the care of selected patients presenting to the emergency department The most efficient OU is a Type 1 unit located in the ED OUs have many benefits, including improvement of patient care, management of hospital and ED overcrowding, increased patient satisfaction, decreased LOS, and cost effectiveness20 Observation medicine has become a specialized area of emergency medicine As OUs expand, observation medicine should become a required part of the emergency medicine curriculum The training for observation medicine is currently variable, although some data suggest that trainees view education in this area as a positive experience34,97 1 Medicare Benefit Policy Manual CMS, 2014 Accessed April 23, 2015, at http://wwwcmsgov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/downloads/bp102c06pdf 2 Silvestri A, McDaniel-Yakscoe N, O’Neill K, et al Observation medicine: The expanded role of the nurse practitioner in a pediatric emergency department extended care unit Pediatr Emerg Care 2005 and 21:199-202 3 ACEP State of the Art: Observation Units in the Emergency Department and May 2011 4 Medicare Processing Manual CMS, 2015 Accessed June 2, 2015, at http://wwwcmsgov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/downloads/clm104c04pdf 5 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 2011 Accessed July 30, 2015, at http://wwwCDCgov/NCHS/data/ahcd/nhamcs_emergency/2011_ed_web_tablespdf 6 Tang N, Stein J, Hsia RY, et al Trends and characteristics of US emergency department visits, 1997-2007 JAMA 2010 and 304:664-70 7 Pitts SR, Pines JM, Handrigan MT, et al National trends in emergency department occupancy, 2001 to 2008: Effect of inpatient admissions versus emergency department practice intensity Ann Emerg Med 2012 and 60:679-86 e3 8 Kellermann AL Crisis in the emergency department N Engl J Med 2006 and 355:1300-1303 9 Taylor J Don’t bring me your tired, your poor: The crowded state of America’s emergency departments Issue Brief George Wash Univ Natl Health Policy Forum 2006:1-24 10 Kocher KE, Meurer WJ, Fazel R, et al National trends in use of computed tomography in the emergency department Ann Emerg Med 2011 and 58:452-462 e3 11 Larson DB, Johnson LW, Schnell BM, et al National trends in CT use in the emergency department: 1995-2007 Radiology 2011 and 258:164-173 12 Rao VM, Levin DC, Parker L, et al Trends in utilization rates of the various imaging modalities in emergency departments: Nationwide Medicare data from 2000 to 2008 J Am Coll Radiol 2011 and 8:706-709 13 Pines JM, Mullins PM, Cooper JK, et al National trends in emergency department use, care patterns, and quality of care of older adults in the United States J Am Geriatr Soc 2013 and 61:12-17 14 Ross MA, Hockenberry JM, Mutter R, et al Protocol-driven emergency department observation units offer savings, shorter stays, and reduced admissions Health Aff (Millwood) 2013 and 32:2149-2156 15 Graff L The Textbook of Observation Medicine: The Healthcare System’s Tincture of Time American College of Emergency Physicians 16 Peacock F, Beckley P, Clark C, et al Recommendations for the evaluation and management of observation services: A Consensus white paper: The Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care Crit Pathw Cardiol 2014 and 13:163-198 17 Ross MA, Graff LGt Principles of observation medicine Emerg Med Clin North Am 2001 and 19:1-17 18 Ross MA, Aurora T, Graff L, et al State of the art: Emergency department observation units Crit Pathw Cardiol 2012 and 11:128-138 19 American College of Emergency Physicians Emergency department observation services Ann Emerg Med 2008 and 51:686 20 Mace SE, Graff L, Mikhail M, et al A national survey of observation units in the United States Am J Emerg Med 2003 and 21:529-533 21 Osborne A, Weston J, Wheatley M, et al Characteristics of hospital observation services: A society of cardiovascular patient care survey Crit Pathw Cardiol 2013 and 12:45-48 22 American College of Emergency Physicians Emergency department observation services Available at https://wwwaceporg/Clinical---Practice-Management/Emergency-Department-Observation-Services/ Accessed April 1, 2016 23 Rydman RJ, Roberts RR, Albrecht GL, et al Patient satisfaction with an emergency department asthma observation unit Acad Emerg Med 1999 and 6:178-183 24 Rydman RJ, Zalenski RJ, Roberts RR, et al Patient satisfaction with an emergency department chest pain observation unit Ann Emerg Med 1997 and 29:109-115 25 Decker WW, Smars PA, Vaidyanathan L, et al A prospective, randomized trial of an emergency department observation unit for acute onset atrial fibrillation Ann Emerg Med 2008 and 52:322-328 26 Shen WK, Decker WW, Smars PA, et al Syncope Evaluation in the Emergency Department Study (SEEDS): A multidisciplinary approach to syncope management Circulation 2004 and 110:3636-3645 27 Farkouh ME, Smars PA, Reeder GS, et al A clinical trial of a chest-pain observation unit for patients with unstable angina Chest Pain Evaluation in the Emergency Room (CHEER) Investigators N Engl J Med 1998 and 339:1882-1888 28 Ross MA, Compton S, Medado P, et al An emergency department diagnostic protocol for patients with transient ischemic attack: A randomized controlled trial Ann Emerg Med 2007 and 50:109-119 29 Chandra A, Sieck S, Hocker M, et al An observation unit may help improve an institution’s Press Ganey satisfaction score Crit Pathw Cardiol 2011 and 10:104-106 30 Baugh CW, Venkatesh AK, Bohan JS Emergency department observation units: A clinical and financial benefit for hospitals Health Care Manage Rev 2011 and 36:28-37 31 Hospital outpatient prospective payment-final rule with comment period and final CY2016 payment rates December 2015 Available at https://http://wwwcmsgov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/HospitalOutpatientPPS/Hospital-Outpatient-Regulations-and-Noticeshtml Accessed March 24, 2016 32 Fact Sheet: Two-Midnight Rule 2015 Available at https://http://wwwcmsgov/Newsroom/MediaReleaseDatabase/Fact-sheets/2015-Fact-sheets-items/2015-07-01-2html Accessed March 29, 2016, 2016 33 Wiler JL, Ross MA, Ginde AA National study of emergency department observation services Acad Emerg Med 2011 and 18:959-65 34 Elefteriades JA, Barrett PW, Kopf GS Litigation in nontraumatic aortic diseases — a tempest in the malpractice maelstrom Cardiology 2008 and 109:263-72 35 Pope JH, Aufderheide TP, Ruthazer R, et al Missed diagnoses of acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department N Engl J Med 2000 and 342:1163-70 36 McCarthy BD, Beshansky JR, D’Agostino RB, et al Missed diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department: Results from a multicenter study Ann Emerg Med 1993 and 22:579-82 37 Moy E, Barrett M, Coffey R, et al Missed diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department: variation by patient and facility characteristics Diagnosis 2014 and 2:29-40 38 Amsterdam EA1, Kirk JD, Diercks DB, et al Exercise testing in chest pain units: Rationale, implementation, and results Cardiol Clin 2005 and 23:503-16, vii 39 Cannon CP, Lee TH Approach to the patient with chest pain In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, eds Braunwald’s Heart Disease Philadelphia: Saunders and 2008:1195-205 40 Goodacre S, Nicholl J, Dixon S, et al Randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a chest pain observation unit compared with routine care BMJ 2004 and 328:254 41 Gomez MA, Anderson JL, Karagounis LA, et al An emergency department-based protocol for rapidly ruling out myocardial ischemia reduces hospital time and expense: Results of a randomized study (ROMIO) J Am Coll Cardiol 1996 and 28:25-33 42 Fesmire FM, Decker WW, Diercks DB, et al Clinical policy: Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes Ann Emerg Med 2006 and 48:270-301 43 Morrow DA, Cannon CP, Jesse RL, et al National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines: Clinical characteristics and utilization of biochemical markers in acute coronary syndromes Circulation 2007 and 115:e356-375 44 Than M, Cullen L, Aldous S, et al 2-Hour accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms using contemporary troponins as the only biomarker: The ADAPT trial J Am Coll Cardiol 2012 and 59:2091-2098 45 Reichlin T, Hochholzer W, Bassetti S, et al Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction with sensitive cardiac troponin assays N Engl J Med 2009 and 361:858-867 46 Jneid H, Anderson JL, Wright RS, et al 2012 ACCF/AHA focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with unstable angina/Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 focused update): A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines Circulation 2012 and 126:875-910 47 Meyer MC, Mooney RP, Sekera AK A critical pathway for patients with acute chest pain and low risk for short-term adverse cardiac events: Role of outpatient stress testing Ann Emerg Med 2006 and 47:427-435 48 Hackam DG, Kapral MK, Wang JT, et al Most stroke patients do not get a warning: A population-based cohort study Neurology 2009 and 73:1074-1076 49 Rothwell PM, Warlow CP Timing of TIAs preceding stroke: Time window for prevention is very short Neurology 2005 and 64:817-820 50 Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al Heart disease and stroke statistics — 2012 update: A report from the American Heart Association Circulation 2012 and 125:e2-e220 51 Nahab F, Leach G, Kingston C, et al Impact of an emergency department observation unit transient ischemic attack protocol on length of stay and cost J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2012 and 21:673-678 52 Amarenco P, Goldstein LB, Szarek M, et al Effects of intense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial Stroke 2007 and 38:3198-3204 53 Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A, 3rd, et al High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack N Engl J Med 2006 and 355:549-559 54 Sirimarco G, Deplanque D, Lavallee PC, et al Atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with transient ischemic attack Stroke 2011 and 42:2131-2137 55 Amarenco P, Labreuche J Lipid management in the prevention of stroke: Review and updated meta-analysis of statins for stroke prevention Lancet Neurol 2009 and 8:453-463 56 Silverman RA, Schleicher MG, Valente CJ, et al Prevalence of undiagnosed dysglycemia in an emergency department observation unit Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2015 57 Wilber ST, Gerson LW, Terrell KM, et al Geriatric emergency medicine and the 2006 Institute of Medicine reports from the Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the US health system Acad Emerg Med 2006 and 13:1345-1351 58 Samaras N, Chevalley T, Samaras D, Gold G Older patients in the emergency department: A review Ann Emerg Med 2010 and 56:261-269 59 Hwang U, Shah MN, Han JH, et al Transforming emergency care for older adults Health Aff (Millwood) 2013 and 32:2116-2121 60 Hustey FM, Meldon SW, Smith MD, et al The effect of mental status screening on the care of elderly emergency department patients Ann Emerg Med 2003 and 41:678-684 61 Carpenter CR, Bassett ER, Fischer GM, et al Four sensitive screening tools to detect cognitive dysfunction in geriatric emergency department patients: Brief Alzheimer’s Screen, Short Blessed Test, Ottawa 3DY, and the caregiver-completed AD8 Acad Emerg Med 2011 and 18:374-384 62 Biese KJ, Roberts E, LaMantia M, et al Effect of a geriatric curriculum on emergency medicine resident attitudes, knowledge, and decision-making Acad Emerg Med 2011 and 18 Suppl 2:S92-S96 63 Foo CL, Siu VW, Tan TL, et al Geriatric assessment and intervention in an emergency department observation unit reduced re-attendance and hospitalisation rates Australas J Ageing 2012 and 31:40-46 64 Rothschild JM, Bates DW, Leape LL Preventable medical injuries in older patients Arch Intern Med 2000 and 160:2717-2728 65 Creditor MC Hazards of hospitalization of the elderly Ann Intern Med 1993 and 118:219-223 66 Moseley MG, Hawley MP, Caterino JM Emergency department observation units and the older patient Clin Geriatr Med 2013 and 29:71-89 67 Ross MA, Compton S, Richardson D, et al The use and effectiveness of an emergency department observation unit for elderly patients Ann Emerg Med 2003 and 41:668-677 68 Medicare Benefit Policy Manual and Chapter 8- Coverage of Extended Care (SNF) Services Under Hospital Insurance Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, April 20, 2012 Available at http://wwwcmsgov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/downloads/bp102c08pdf Accessed Oct 29, 2015 69 Are you a hospital inpatient or outpatient? Center for Medicare and Medicaid, Feb 1, 2011 Available at http://wwwmedicaregov/Publications/Pubs/pdf/11435pdf Accessed Oct 29, 2015 70 Conners GP, Melzer SM, Betts JM, et al Pediatric observation units Pediatrics 2012 and 130:172-179 71 Macy ML, Hall M, Shah SS, et al Differences in designations of observation care in US freestanding children’s hospitals: Are they virtual or real? J Hosp Med 2012 and 7:287-293 72 Middleton KR, Burt CW Availability of pediatric services and equipment in emergency departments: United States, 2002-03 Adv Data 2006:1-16 73 Macy ML, Cohn L, Clark SJ Trends in observation-prone emergency department visits among Michigan children, 2007-2011 Acad Emerg Med 2015 and 22:483-486 74 Klein BL, Patterson M Observation unit management of pediatric emergencies Emerg Med Clin North Am 1991 and 9:669-676 75 Browne GJ A short stay or 23-hour ward in a general and academic children’s hospital: Are they effective? Pediatr Emerg Care 2000 and 16:223-229 76 Macy ML, Stanley RM, Lozon MM, et al Trends in high-turnover stays among children hospitalized in the United States, 1993-2003 Pediatrics 2009 and 123:996-1002 77 Shanley LA, Hronek C, Hall M, et al Structure and function of observation units in children’s hospitals: A mixed-methods study Acad Pediatr 2015 and 15:518-525 78 Alpern ER, Calello DP, Windreich R, et al Utilization and unexpected hospitalization rates of a pediatric emergency department 23-hour observation unit Pediatr Emerg Care 2008 and 24:589-594 79 Macy ML, Kim CS, Sasson C, et al Pediatric observation units in the United States: A systematic review J Hosp Med 2010 and 5:172-182 80 Macy ML, Hall M, Shah SS, et al Pediatric observation status: Are we overlooking a growing population in children’s hospitals? J Hosp Med 2012 and 7:530-536 81 Zebrack M, Kadish H, Nelson D The pediatric hybrid observation unit: an analysis of 6477 consecutive patient encounters Pediatrics 2005 and 115:e535-e542 82 Scribano PV, Wiley JF, 2nd, Platt K Use of an observation unit by a pediatric emergency department for common pediatric illnesses Pediatr Emerg Care 2001 and 17:321-323 83 Sandweiss DR, Corneli HM, Kadish HA Barriers to discharge from a 24-hour observation unit for children with bronchiolitis Pediatr Emerg Care 2010 and 26:892-896 84 Marks MK, Lovejoy FH, Jr, Rutherford PA, et al Impact of a short stay unit on asthma patients admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital Qual Manag Health Care 1997 and 6:14-22 85 Crocetti MT, Barone MA, Amin DD, et al Pediatric observation status beds on an inpatient unit: An integrated care model Pediatr Emerg Care 2004 and 20:17-21 86 Mallory MD, Kadish H, Zebrack M, et al Use of a pediatric observation unit for treatment of children with dehydration caused by gastroenteritis Pediatr Emerg Care 2006 and 22:1-6 87 Willert C, Davis AT, Herman JJ, et al Short-term holding room treatment of asthmatic children J Pediatr 1985 and 106:707-711 88 Wathen JE, MacKenzie T, Bothner JP Usefulness of the serum electrolyte panel in the management of pediatric dehydration treated with intravenously administered fluids Pediatrics 2004 and 114:1227-1234 89 O’Brien SR, Hein EW, Sly RM Treatment of acute asthmatic attacks in a holding unit of a pediatric emergency room Ann Allergy 1980 and 45:159-162 90 Bajaj L, Roback MG Postreduction management of intussusception in a children’s hospital emergency department Pediatrics 2003 and 112:1302-1307 91 Miescier MJ, Nelson DS, Firth SD, et al Children with asthma admitted to a pediatric observation unit Pediatr Emerg Care 2005 and 21:645-649 92 Holsti M, Kadish HA, Sill BL, et al Pediatric closed head injuries treated in an observation unit Pediatr Emerg Care 2005 and 21:639-644 93 Stead LG, Bellolio MF, Suravaram S, et al Evaluation of transient ischemic attack in an emergency department observation unit Neurocrit Care 2009 and 10:204-208 94 Bernstein SL, Boudreaux ED, Cydulka RK, et al Tobacco control interventions in the emergency department: A joint statement of emergency medicine organizations J Emerg Nurs 2006 and 32:370-381 95 Peacock WF, Young J, Collins S, et al Heart failure observation units: Optimizing care Ann Emerg Med 2006 and 47:22-33 96 Bernstein SL, Boudreaux ED Emergency department-based tobacco interventions improve patient satisfaction J Emerg Med 2010 and 38:e35-40 97 Marks MK, Baskin MN, Lovejoy FH, Jr, et al Intern learning and education in a short stay unit A qualitative study Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997 and 151:193-198
Emergency Medicine Reports, ISSN 0746-2506, 04/2016, Volume 37, Issue 8
Authors Annabella V. Salvador-Kelly, MD, FACEP, Associate Medical Director, Long Island Jewish Medical Center; Attending Physician, Department of Emergency... 
Medicine | Heart failure | Pediatrics | Medical imaging | Nuclear magnetic resonance--NMR | Physicians | Emergency services | Emergency medical care | Patient satisfaction | Asthma | Geriatrics
Journal Article
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