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Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, 2018, pp. 1 - 16
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the main engine of local economic development. However, SME growth remains an issue as labor productivity is low... 
Labor productivity | Project quality | SMEs | Access to capital | Sales exports | Productivity | Economic models | Small & medium sized enterprises-SME | Economic development | Quality | Finance
Journal Article
Journal of Financial Economics, ISSN 0304-405X, 2011, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp. 184 - 203
We study the relation between access to finance and productivity. Our contribution to the literature is a clean identification of a causal effect of access to... 
Access to finance | Economic growth | BUSINESS, FINANCE | WEATHER | INVESTMENT | CONSTRAINTS | ECONOMICS | DEBT | Access to finance Economic growth
Journal Article
Journal of Economics, ISSN 0976-5239, 04/2014, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 1 - 6
New micro-enterprises are of significant importance to employment creation, poverty alleviation and the economic growth of South Africa. However, the failure... 
Access | External | South Africa | Micro-enterprises | Finance
Journal Article
Journal of Corporate Finance, ISSN 0929-1199, 06/2017, Volume 44, pp. 215 - 232
The literature on institutions has been challenged on grounds of reverse causality, measurement error in institutional indicators, and heterogeneity. This... 
Access to finance | Unbundling institutions | Firm size | Contracting institutions | Property rights institutions | BUSINESS, FINANCE | DETERMINANTS | SIZE | GROWTH | BANKS | Working capital | Banks (Finance)
Journal Article
2009, World Bank working paper, ISBN 9780821378618, Volume no. 159, vii, 38
The purpose of this note is to provide policy insights to decision makers, academics, and researchers on the trends in investment in Southeast Europe (SEE). A... 
Investments | COMPETITIVENESS | FOREIGN BANKS | SMALL FARMS | LEGAL FRAMEWORK | CAPITAL STOCK | HOUSEHOLD BORROWING | BANK CONSOLIDATION | REMITTANCES | PRIVATE SAVINGS | CORRUPTION | NATIONAL SAVING | FOREIGN FIRMS | OPPORTUNITY COSTS | GDP | PUBLIC SAVINGS | CAPITAL INVESTMENT | BUSINESS ACTIVITIES | PRIVATIZATION | FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY | BUSINESS CLIMATE | TRANSITION ECONOMIES | TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT | PROSPERITY | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY | AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT | MARGINAL PRODUCTIVITY | TRADE FINANCE | ACCESS TO SERVICES | FINANCIAL MARKETS | AGRICULTURE | ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS | PUBLIC POLICY | AFFORDABILITY OF ACCESS | FINANCIAL AFFAIRS | ACCESS TO FINANCE | NEW ENTREPRENEURS | TRADING | CREDIT CRUNCH | CONTRIBUTION | INVESTMENT RATES | INVESTMENT PROJECTS | FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS | FINANCIAL SECTOR | FINANCING OF INVESTMENT | STOCK MARKET CAPITALIZATION | LIQUIDITY | INVESTING | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | PRIVATE INVESTMENT RATES | PRIVATE INVESTMENT | FOREIGN LOANS | POLITICAL STABILITY | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INVESTMENT PATTERNS | PORTFOLIO FLOWS | PUBLIC SPENDING | CAPITAL MARKET | STOCK EXCHANGES | AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY | INCOME | TRANSITION COUNTRIES | BANKS | ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION | HEAVY INVESTMENTS | MARKET DEEPENING | VALUABLE | CAPITAL BASE | INVESTMENT ACTIVITY | PRODUCTION COSTS | RAPID GROWTH | INVESTMENT SPENDING | HOST ECONOMIES | SALE | PROFITABILITY | SHARE OF INVESTMENT | TURNOVER | CAPACITY UTILIZATION | CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENTS | EMPLOYEE | RETURNS | INVESTMENT FLOWS | POSITIVE EFFECTS | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | CAPITAL FLOWS | INVESTMENT NEEDS | DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION | CAPITAL ACCUMULATION | PUBLIC FINANCE | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | CORPORATE BOND | PRODUCTION FUNCTION | FIXED ASSETS | RULE OF LAW | FINANCIAL SERVICES | UNION | NATIONAL SAVINGS | SOCIAL SERVICES | STATEMENT | WORTH | FINANCIAL DEPTH | UNDERDEVELOPED FINANCIAL SECTOR | INTERNATIONAL BANK | INVESTMENT BY SECTOR | LIVING STANDARDS | REAL ESTATE | CAPITAL EXPENDITURE | DEBT | MARKET DEVELOPMENTS | SUPPLY CHAINS | DOMESTIC CAPITAL | FIXED CAPITAL | GROSS FIXED CAPITAL FORMATION | PRIVATE SECTOR CREDIT | INVENTORY | PUBLIC ASSETS | INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING | PRIVATE CAPITAL | DOMESTIC BANKS | CREDIT GROWTH | INITIAL CAPITAL | ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE | AVAILABILITY OF CREDIT | GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE | RATE OF RETURN | TRADING COSTS | SAVINGS RATES | PRIVATE INVESTMENTS | PUBLIC INVESTMENT | AFFORDABILITY | FOREIGN COMPANIES | TELECOMMUNICATIONS | ECONOMIC RESEARCH | MARKET CAPITALIZATION | PUBLIC INVESTMENTS | BUSINESS ACTIVITY | FISCAL CONSTRAINTS | STOCK MARKET | LIQUIDITY CRISIS | FUTURE GROWTH | ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE | STATISTICAL DATA | INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE | EDUCATION PROGRAMS | INVESTMENT GROWTH | VALUE ADDED | FOREIGN INVESTORS | LABOR FORCE | ENABLING ENVIRONMENT | HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT | INSURANCE | PHYSICAL CAPITAL | ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE | CENTRAL BANKS | CONTINGENT LIABILITIES | ADVISORY SERVICE | HUMAN CAPITAL | FOREIGN OWNERSHIP | SPECULATION | EXPENDITURES | ECONOMIC ACTIVITY | NATURAL RESOURCES | FINANCIAL SECTORS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | LOCAL BANKS | CAPITAL EXPENDITURES | PORTFOLIO | UNEMPLOYMENT | LEVY | MONETARY FUND | PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES | FOREIGN INVESTMENT | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | TOTAL OUTPUT | BANKING SECTOR | FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION | VENTURE CAPITAL | CAPITAL MARKETS | LACK OF ACCESS | REMITTANCE | KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY | PRODUCTIVITY | SAVINGS | CORPORATE BOND ISSUES | STOCK MARKETS | DOMESTIC INVESTMENT | CAPITAL OUTLAYS | GOVERNMENT POLICIES | GROWTH POTENTIAL
Book
06/2014
This fifth economic update also examines prospects for economic prosperity in the context of rapid urbanization; in particular, how the growth of cities can be... 
INVESTMENT DECISIONS | RECURRENT EXPENDITURE | JUDICIAL SYSTEM | MINISTRY OF FINANCE | BUSINESS ACTIVITIES | COLLECTED REVENUES | DOMESTIC SAVINGS | ECONOMIC POLICY | ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | URBAN DEVELOPMENT | INTEREST RATES | PRIVATE SECTOR | EARNINGS | PUBLIC SECTOR DEFICIT | TRADING | SMALL BUSINESS | COMMERCIAL BORROWING | DURABLE ASSETS | PROFITABLE BUSINESSES | NEW BUSINESSES | URBAN AREAS | EXTERNAL AID | TAX RATE | TAX EXEMPTIONS | MARKET SHARE | LENDER OF LAST RESORT | INTERNATIONAL INVESTORS | JOB OPPORTUNITIES | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | FARMER | SANITATION | COMMERCIAL LOANS | PUSH FACTOR | CONSUMER GOODS | LOCAL CURRENCY | REVENUE TARGET | BANKRUPTCY | URBAN ECONOMIES | LOCAL GOVERNMENTS | RISK OF DEBT | CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT | NEW ENTRANTS | DURABLE | ADMINISTRATIVE BARRIERS | DURABLE GOODS | SMALL BUSINESSES | DISBURSEMENTS | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | SETTLEMENT | FARM ENTERPRISES | RULE OF LAW | FINANCIAL SERVICES | HOUSEHOLDS | LENDER | FISCAL BALANCE | DEBT-SERVICE | REAL INTEREST | ECONOMIC CONDITIONS | BROAD MONEY | FINANCIAL MARKET | FORMAL SOURCES OF CREDIT | COMMODITY PRICES | OIL PRICES | PENSION FUND | FISCAL POLICIES | INCOME TAX | JOB CREATION | PRIVATE CAPITAL | PROGRAMS | ARREARS | CREDIT GROWTH | RECURRENT EXPENDITURES | FISCAL ADJUSTMENT | MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS | EXTERNAL SHOCKS | DEBT MANAGEMENT | PUBLIC INVESTMENT | PENSION FUNDS | INTERNATIONAL MARKETS | BUSINESS PEOPLE | LABOR MARKET | PUBLIC INVESTMENTS | MICRO ENTERPRISE | RESERVE | UNCERTAINTY | FISCAL DEFICIT | EDUCATION LEVELS | WAGES | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | URBANIZATION | EXTERNAL CAPITAL | BALANCE OF PAYMENTS | BASIC SERVICES | LOAN | LOCAL GOVERNMENT | ADMINISTRATIVE BURDENS | PRESENT VALUE | VALUE OF EXPORTS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | BOND | PENSIONS | EXCHANGE RATE | FISCAL TARGET | MIGRATION | ACCUMULATION OF ARREARS | DOMESTIC MARKET | CREDIT MARKET | DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE | FINANCIAL CRISES | PRUDENT FISCAL MANAGEMENT | PUBLIC EXPENDITURES | INTERNATIONAL RESERVES | LACK OF ACCESS | CONSOLIDATION | RESERVES | BANK OF TANZANIA | DEBT SERVICE PAYMENTS | SAVINGS | DOMESTIC INVESTMENT | TAX ADMINISTRATION | PRIVATE CAPITAL INFLOWS | MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS | FISCAL POLICY | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | POVERTY LEVEL | CORRUPTION | PENSION | MONETARY POLICY | NET PRESENT VALUE | EXTERNAL FINANCE | REAL INTEREST RATES | BORROWING COSTS | REINVESTMENT | LAWS | INFLATION RATE | INVESTMENT PROJECTS | AGRICULTURAL SECTOR | BANK FINANCING | RATE OF EXCHANGE | INTEREST PAYMENTS | TRADE BALANCE | RECEIPTS | TRANSACTION | INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT | PUBLIC SPENDING | PUBLIC SERVICE | EQUIPMENT | SMALL LOANS | PUBLIC ENTERPRISES | EXPORT GROWTH | FINANCIAL RESOURCES | ENTREPRENEURS | PROFITABILITY | DEBT SERVICE | COMMERCIAL FARMING | EMPLOYEE | RETURNS | CURRENT ACCOUNT | DEBT SUSTAINABILITY | FINANCIAL CRISIS | INFLATION | NATIONAL ECONOMY | LACK OF COMPETITION | EXTERNAL BALANCE | COMMERCIAL BANKS | NATIONAL DEBT | FISCAL FRAMEWORK | ADMINISTRATIVE BURDEN | TAX | INCOME TAXES | VALUE OF IMPORTS | PRIVATE SECTOR CREDIT | CORPORATE INCOME TAX | FISCAL MANAGEMENT | INFLATION RATES | CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS | RISK MITIGATION | BUSINESS INCUBATOR | ACCOUNTING | MICROFINANCE | TRANSACTION COSTS | POVERTY REDUCTION | COMMERCIAL DEBT | IMPORT DUTIES | EXPLOITATION | INTERNATIONAL INTEREST | URBAN GROWTH | GOVERNMENT BORROWING | SERVICE PROVISION | SOCIAL SECURITY | TAX REVENUES | ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE | FISCAL RISKS | HUMAN CAPITAL | INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT | MFI | FINANCES | PROPERTY RIGHTS | TRANSPORT | ECONOMIC ACTIVITY | EXPENDITURE ADJUSTMENTS | HOUSING | PUBLIC EXPENDITURE REVIEW | GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES | PUBLIC DEBT | PUBLIC DISCLOSURE | SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS | PUBLIC AGENCIES | UNEMPLOYMENT | MONETARY FUND | DIVERSIFICATION | ECONOMIES OF SCALE | LOSS OF CONFIDENCE | PUBLIC EXPENDITURE | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS | FINANCIAL FRAGILITY | INSTRUMENT | EXPORT PERFORMANCE | ACCESS TO CREDIT | PRODUCTIVITY
Book
1987, ISBN 9780939934935, xi, 336
Written by Margaret Garritsen de Vries, former Historian of the IMF, the book describes the policies and activities the IMF has pursued in helping members... 
International finance | International Monetary Fund | Balance of payments | Adjustment Process
Book
2004, ISBN 158906318X, xi, 528
Fiscal policy can foster growth and human development through a number of different channels. These include the macroeconomic (for example, through the... 
Government spending policy | Expenditures, Public | Finance, Public | Development Strategy | Development Plans | Development Policy
Book
2009, ISBN 0821376853, xvi, 201
This book argues that poor countries need additional, cross-border capital channeled to the private sector for employment generation, growth, and poverty... 
Economic assistance | Economic development | Developing countries Finance | Finance | Developing countries | Economic policy | TREASURIES | DEBT SERVICING | SECONDARY MARKET | FALLEN ANGELS | PERMANENT DEBT | SOVEREIGN BONDS | BOND INVESTORS | BOND MARKET | IPO | PRIVATE INVESTORS | ISSUANCE | CDS | FOREIGN CURRENCY | JUNK BOND | BOND OPTION | BANK CREDITS | INCOME INSTRUMENTS | TREASURY INFLATION | PAR BONDS | BANK DEBT | GLOBAL CAPITAL MARKETS | HOST COUNTRY | BONDHOLDERS | TRADING | CREDIT CEILING | SMALL BUSINESS | SAFETY NET | BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS CRISIS | BOND FUND | BONDS | CENTRAL BANK | CREDIT ENHANCEMENT | MARKET INTEREST RATES | HEDGE FUNDS | LIQUIDITY | DEBTOR | POLITICAL STABILITY | COUNTRY DEBT | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INVESTOR BASE | BOND SALES | GLOBAL BONDS | MARKET VALUES | EQUITY FLOWS | BENEFICIARY | PERFORMANCE RISKS | LOCAL CURRENCY | BANKRUPTCY | LIFE INSURANCE POLICIES | CAPITAL FLOWS | INTERNATIONAL FINANCE | PUBLIC FINANCE | PREPAYMENT | BACKED SECURITIES | CREDIT HISTORY | RISK MANAGEMENT | SHORT-TERM CAPITAL | INTERNATIONAL BANKS | SETTLEMENT | INDEBTED COUNTRIES | BANK LENDING | JUNK BONDS | WARRANTS | INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MARKETS | INTERNATIONAL BANK | SOVEREIGN RATINGS | FINANCING REQUIREMENTS | CREDIT RATING | GLOBAL ECONOMY | OIL PRICES | FISCAL POLICIES | BANKRUPTCY LAWS | COUPON PAYMENTS | INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING | PRIVATE CAPITAL | TREASURY BONDS | PRICE RISK | MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS | SOVEREIGN RATING | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS | DEBT CAPITAL | DEBT DEFAULT | DEBT FORGIVENESS | DEVELOPING COUNTRY | PENSION FUNDS | DEBTOR COUNTRIES | RENEGOTIATIONS | BOND ISSUANCE | DEBT-EQUITY SWAP | DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS | DEBT ISSUES | GLOBAL CAPITAL | INSURANCE | MORTGAGE LOAN | DEBT-EQUITY SWAPS | MATURITY | BORROWER | OUTSTANDING LOANS | PRIVATE FINANCING | IMMUNIZATION | RETURN | LOAN | EXPENDITURES | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | BOND | DEBT ISSUANCE | DEBT REDUCTION | MORTGAGE | OIL PRICE | DEBT CONTRACTS | COUPON | DISCOUNT BONDS | RESERVES | DEBT SERVICE PAYMENTS | PARTIAL RISK | FIXED INCOME | COLLATERAL | LEGAL FRAMEWORK | REMITTANCES | DEBT RELIEF | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | PENSION | COUPONS | EXTERNAL FINANCE | INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS | DEBT BURDEN | STATE BANK | CREDIT RISK | LOAN MARKET | TRADE FINANCE | DEBT CRISIS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | CREDIT RATING AGENCIES | BORROWING COSTS | COLLECTIVE ACTION CLAUSES | INDEXED BONDS | FACE VALUE | INTERNATIONAL DEBT | BANK LOANS | CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | PRIVATE DEBT | DEBT FLOWS | ECONOMIC POLICIES | EXCHANGE COMMISSION | FOREIGN CAPITAL | GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT FINANCE | TRANSACTION | INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT | RELIANCE ON SHORT-TERM DEBT | TRANSFER RISKS | CREDIT CARD | FOREIGN DEBT | CURRENCY CRISIS | DEBT OBLIGATIONS | DEFAULTS | COLLECTIVE ACTION | DEBT RESTRUCTURING | DEBT SERVICE | SECURITIES | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM | RETURNS | FINANCIAL CRISIS | MUTUAL FUNDS | DEPOSITS | CLAIMANT | SOVEREIGN DEBT RESTRUCTURING | CAPITAL ASSET PRICING | PERFORMANCE RISK | CREDITORS | FINANCIAL STRUCTURE | INSURANCE CORPORATION | COUNTRY RISK | DEVELOPMENT BONDS | TAX | BOND ISSUE | INSURANCE COMPANIES | FOREIGN CURRENCY DEBT | LIFE INSURANCE | ACCOUNTING | DEBT CRISES | FINANCIAL FLOWS | MICROFINANCE | PAR BOND | TELECOMMUNICATIONS | VALUATION | PARTIAL GUARANTEES | COUPON BONDS | CREDIT RATINGS | ASSET CLASS | FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE | INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL | BUYBACKS | EMERGING MARKETS | INTEREST COSTS | EQUITY STAKES | FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS | RISK OF DEFAULT | VARIABLE RATE | CAPITAL OUTFLOWS | INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS | CREDIT RISKS | BOND FINANCING | DEBT STOCK | SOVEREIGN RISK | EXTERNAL FINANCES | DEVELOPMENT FINANCE | CONTINGENT LIABILITIES | INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT | CREDITOR | PRIVATE LENDERS | TRANSPARENCY | REPAYMENT | TREASURY | DEBT-EQUITY | FLOATING INTEREST RATES | INSURANCE PREMIUM | BASIS POINTS | SOVEREIGN BOND | PORTFOLIO | MONETARY FUND | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | MARKET ACCESS | FINANCIAL STRESS | SOVEREIGN DEBT | INSTRUMENT | REMITTANCE | DEBTORS | INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY | INVESTMENT RATE | INSURANCE PREMIUMS | DEBTS | INVESTMENT BANKS
Book
06/2011, World Bank Studies, ISBN 0821388002, 148
This report addresses the core components of enterprise activity, namely, the factors of production and the public infrastructure to support them. In the... 
Industries | Europe, Eastern | 21st century | Global Financial Crisis, 2008-2009 | Economic conditions | Asia, Central | Business enterprises | INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY | LABOR MARKETS | ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES | DEVALUATIONS | MATURITIES | OUTREACH | FINANCIAL ACCESS | POST-CRISIS PERIOD | FOREIGN CURRENCY | SUBSIDIARIES | WAGE GROWTH | MARKET CONDITIONS | LARGE FIRMS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT | GOOD GOVERNANCE | SYSTEMIC BANKING CRISIS | PROTECTION OF PROPERTY | INTEREST RATES | ACCESSIBILITY | START-UPS | HOST COUNTRY | CREDIT EXPANSION | TRADING | INVESTMENT CLIMATE | LOAN DEMAND | FINANCIAL CAPITAL | FOREIGN EXCHANGE | CREDIT INSTITUTIONS | SALES REVENUE | CURRENCY UNITS | HOST COUNTRIES | PRUDENTIAL REQUIREMENTS | FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | MULTINATIONAL BANKS | PRIVATE INVESTMENT | JOB OPPORTUNITIES | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | ENTERPRISE GROWTH | LEGISLATION | FIXED EXCHANGE RATES | BANKING SECTORS | FOREIGN BANK PARTICIPATION | LOCAL CURRENCY | BANKRUPTCY | CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT | CAPITAL FLOWS | MIGRANT WORKERS | CREDIT MARKETS | EDUCATION SYSTEMS | FINANCING CONSTRAINTS | POWER OUTAGES | INTERNATIONAL BANKS | EXTERNAL FUNDING | BANK LENDING | FINANCIAL SERVICES | LENDER | LIMITED ACCESS | UNION | ECONOMIC CONDITIONS | INTERNATIONAL BANK | POWER OUTAGE | RECESSION | STATISTICAL ANALYSIS | INSOLVENT | FINANCIAL MARKET | REGULATORY REFORMS | DEBT | CRISIS LENDING | BANKING CRISIS | MARKET DEVELOPMENTS | OVERDRAFT FACILITIES | RECOVERY PERIOD | JOB CREATION | PRIVATE CAPITAL | CREDIT GROWTH | DISPARITIES IN ACCESS | ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE | MARKET REFORM | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS | EXTERNAL FINANCING | CREDIT RELATIONSHIPS | INTERNATIONAL MARKETS | LEGAL CODE | AFFILIATES | LABOR MARKET | LEVERAGE | MULTINATIONAL | CROSS-BORDER FLOWS | WAGES | PHYSICAL CAPITAL | SYSTEMIC CRISIS | BANK CLAIMS | BORROWER | CENTRAL BANKS | BALANCE OF PAYMENTS | LOAN | LOCAL GOVERNMENT | EXCHANGE RATES | EXTERNAL FUNDS | FIRM FINANCING | EXCHANGE RATE | ACCESS TO CAPITAL | MIGRATION | MULTINATIONAL BANK | MORTGAGE | FINANCIAL CRISES | INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS | SALES GROWTH | BUSINESS ENTERPRISES | TAX ADMINISTRATION | FOREIGN BANKS | COLLATERAL | FOREIGN BANK | WHOLESALE FUNDING | OVERDRAFTS | LENDING POLICIES | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | CORRUPTION | DEPOSIT | CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICITS | COLLATERAL REQUIREMENTS | EXTERNAL FINANCE | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE | OBSTACLES TO FINANCE | MORTGAGE MARKET | JUDGEMENT | DEFICITS | FIRM PERFORMANCE | REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS | EMPLOYMENT | BANKING MARKETS | BANKING SYSTEMS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | DEPENDENT | ACCESS TO FINANCE | FINANCING COSTS | FINANCIAL SYSTEM | CREDIT CRUNCH | BANK LOANS | FOREIGN CLAIMS | CAPITAL INFLOWS | FINANCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENTS | INFORMATIONAL ASYMMETRIES | ENTERPRISE OPERATION | FINANCIAL SECTOR | INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT | PROFIT OPPORTUNITIES | SUBSIDIARY | LOAN APPLICATIONS | FOREIGN CAPITAL | WORKING CAPITAL | SYSTEMIC CRISES | SHORT-TERM LENDING | EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE | FOREIGN DEBT | INCOME | ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS | FINANCIAL RESOURCES | CURRENCY MISMATCHES | PROFITABILITY | GOVERNANCE INDICATORS | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE CENTER | CURRENT ACCOUNT | FINANCIAL CRISIS | INCOME LEVELS | DEPOSITS | LENDERS | INFLATION | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS | BANKING SECTOR ASSETS | TAX | OVERDRAFT | INSOLVENCY | DOMESTIC BANKS | SUPPLY OF FINANCING | FISCAL RESOURCES | GOVERNMENT REGULATION | TAX RATES | ACCOUNTING | CURRENCY COMPOSITION | TELECOMMUNICATIONS | EXCHANGE RATE REGIME | BUSINESS ACTIVITY | EXTERNAL BORROWING | REAL SECTOR | FISCAL BALANCES | FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS | LEGAL ORIGIN | BRAIN DRAIN | FIXED EXCHANGE RATE | FOREIGN INVESTORS | LABOR FORCE | FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS | FLOATING EXCHANGE RATE | BANKING SYSTEM | ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE | HUMAN CAPITAL | FINANCES | PROPERTY RIGHTS | TRANSPORT | FOREIGN OWNERSHIP | ECONOMIC ACTIVITY | ACCESS TO FINANCING | HOUSING | UNEMPLOYMENT | MONETARY FUND | BORROWING | FOREIGN INVESTMENT | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | BANKING SECTOR | INSTRUMENT | GREATER ACCESS | ACCESS TO CREDIT | PRIVATE BANKS | PRODUCTIVITY | DEBT SECURITIES | BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
eBook
2008, illustrated edition, Policy Research Reports, ISBN 0821372912, 272
The report develops indicators to measure access to financial services, synthesizes research that evaluates the impact of access on growth and poverty... 
Finance & Accounting | Financial services industry | Developing countries | Banks and banking | LACK OF FINANCE | LABOR MARKETS | SMALL BORROWERS | INEQUALITY | ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES | OUTREACH | VILLAGES | FINANCIAL ACCESS | ALLOCATION OF FUNDS | MAINSTREAM BANKS | FOREIGN CURRENCY | PRIVATE CREDIT | PERSONAL BANKRUPTCY | MARKET ECONOMY | INFORMATION ASYMMETRIES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT | PAYMENTS SERVICES | ACCESS TO SERVICES | PUBLIC POLICY | INTEREST RATES | START-UPS | EARNINGS | FINANCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT | FORMAL ECONOMY | CREDIT INFORMATION | SMALL BUSINESS | FINANCIAL INSTITUTION | TRANSACTIONS COSTS | EQUITY INVESTMENTS | FORMAL FINANCIAL SERVICES | FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | ENTERPRISE GROWTH | FINANCIAL SECTOR POLICIES | BANKS | ACCESS BARRIERS | CREDIT CONSTRAINTS | BANKRUPTCY | LOAN APPLICATION | PROVISION OF FINANCE | FINANCING OBSTACLES | CREDIT MARKETS | CREDIT HISTORIES | RISK MANAGEMENT | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | FINANCE COST | BANK LENDING | FINANCIAL SERVICES | HOUSEHOLDS | LENDER | LIMITED ACCESS | BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES | FINANCIAL INFRASTRUCTURES | INTERNATIONAL BANK | SUBSIDY COST | FINANCIAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY | INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES | BROAD ACCESS | FINANCIAL MARKET | DEBT | GOVERNMENT POLICY | MORAL HAZARD | DISCRIMINATION | SAVINGS PRODUCTS | ATM PENETRATION | MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS | EXTERNAL FINANCING | BENEFITS OF ACCESS | MFIS | AFFORDABILITY | CREDITWORTHINESS | CREDIT GUARANTEES | LABOR MARKET | INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE | DEPOSITORS | HOUSEHOLD ACCESS | CONSUMER PROTECTION | ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES | FINANCIAL ASSETS | PHYSICAL CAPITAL | HIGH INTEREST RATES | BORROWER | OUTSTANDING LOANS | CREDIT REGISTRIES | FINANCIAL TECHNOLOGY | LOAN | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | EXTERNAL FUNDS | PERSONAL ASSETS | FINANCIAL SECTOR REFORMS | ENDOWMENTS | REPAYMENT RATES | LACK OF ACCESS | FINANCIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS | SAVINGS | ACCESS INDICATORS | FINANCIAL SECTOR REFORM | GOVERNMENT POLICIES | COLLATERAL | POOR CLIENTS | DEVELOPMENT FINANCE INSTITUTION | CORRUPTION | DEPOSIT | COLLATERAL REQUIREMENTS | EXTERNAL FINANCE | OPEN FINANCIAL MARKETS | PREJUDICE | DEPOSIT ACCOUNTS | PRIVATIZATION | FORMAL FINANCIAL SECTOR | BANK FAILURES | CREDIT SCORING | INEQUALITIES | BANKING SYSTEMS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | BANK ACCOUNT | CREDIT RATIONING | ACCESS TO FINANCE | GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS | FINANCIAL SYSTEM | LACK OF AWARENESS | ADVANCED ECONOMIES | EXCLUSION | BANKING CRISES | INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS | INFORMAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY | SOCIAL JUSTICE | INDICATORS OF ACCESS | PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS | LOAN APPLICATIONS | RECEIPTS | FINANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRY | CAPITAL MARKET | HIDDEN SUBSIDIES | FINANCIAL LITERACY | MICROCREDIT | CREDIT SCHEME | SMALL LOANS | GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | ENTREPRENEURS | PROFITABILITY | SECURITIES | SELF-EXCLUSION | PUBLIC FUNDS | BANK BRANCH | INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES | BANK CHARGES | CAPITAL ACCUMULATION | DEPOSITS | LENDERS | SELF-FINANCING | CREDITORS | FINANCIAL PRODUCTS | FINANCIAL SYSTEMS | MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION | INFORMATION SHARING | CREDIT POLICIES | FINANCIAL DEPTH | GROUP LENDING | OVERDRAFT | SOCIAL NETWORK | CHECKING ACCOUNT | PRIVATE EQUITY | RISK MITIGATION | FINANCIAL SECTOR POLICY | MICROFINANCE | SAVINGS SERVICES | GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION | TRANSACTION COSTS | BANK ACCOUNTS | INFORMAL FINANCE | ACCOUNT HOLDERS | STOCK MARKET | EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY | GUARANTEE SCHEMES | FINANCIAL EXCLUSION | INSTITUTIONAL REFORM | SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION | BANKING SYSTEM | DEMAND FOR CREDIT | INTEREST RATE | CREDIT GUARANTEE | FINANCIAL SUPPORT | ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE | LOAN PORTFOLIO | DEVELOPMENT FINANCE | LOAN SIZES | CREDITOR | MFI | PROPERTY RIGHTS | ABUSIVE LENDING | REPAYMENT | HOUSEHOLD WELFARE | GENDER | CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS | FINANCIAL SERVICE | BORROWING | GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | RATES OF INTEREST | FINANCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE | PARTIAL CREDIT | LOAN OFFICERS | PROVISION OF CREDIT | CAPITAL MARKETS | GREATER ACCESS | REMITTANCE | ACCESS TO CREDIT | SMALL ENTERPRISES | CHECKING ACCOUNTS
eBook
06/2015, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 7287
The empirical literature on institutions and development has been challenged on grounds of reverse causality, measurement error in institutional indicators,... 
CHECKS | ENTERPRISES | PAYMENT | CREDIT | CREDIT ALLOCATION | LEGAL FRAMEWORK | COLLATERAL | CONTRACT RIGHTS | CONTRACTS | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | CORRUPTION | DEPOSIT | JUDICIAL SYSTEM | SHARE | FINANCIAL ACCESS | EXTERNAL FINANCE | STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENT | CREDIBILITY | PRIVATE CREDIT | FINANCIAL REGULATIONS | DISPUTE RESOLUTION | EXCHANGE | EQUAL TREATMENT | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT | BANK | MARKET | BANKING SYSTEMS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | ACCESSIBILITY | ACCESS TO FINANCE | EARNINGS | REINVESTMENT | FIXED ASSET | SMALL BUSINESS | FINANCIAL SYSTEM | ENDOWMENT | EXPROPRIATION RISK | INFLATION RATE | EMPLOYEES | MINORITY SHAREHOLDER PROTECTION | FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE | INVESTMENT | BANK FINANCING | INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT | GOODS | REINVESTMENT RATES | DEBTOR | MARKETS | CORPORATE DEBT | FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | WORKING CAPITAL | MICRO ENTERPRISES | STOCK | EXPROPRIATION | FINANCE | INVESTORS | CORPORATE INSIDERS | BANKS | FORMAL FINANCE | JUDICIAL SYSTEMS | MICRO DATA | DEFAULTS | INFORMATION ASYMMETRY | INTERESTS | SECURITIES | BANKRUPTCY | RETURNS | FINANCING OBSTACLES | DURABLE | BANK CREDIT | ENTERPRISE | INCOME LEVELS | LENDERS | INFLATION | EQUITY MARKETS | CREDITORS | FIXED ASSETS | RULE OF LAW | LENDER | FINANCIAL SYSTEMS | BORROWERS | INVESTMENTS | CREDIT BANK | COUNTRY RISK | SHAREHOLDERS | FINANCIAL DEPTH | INTERNATIONAL BANK | PROPERTY RIGHT | MICRO-ENTERPRISES | DEBT | LIABILITIES | INTEREST | CAPITAL FINANCE | FINANCING | BANKRUPTCY LAWS | BRIBES | JOB CREATION | INVESTMENT FUNDS | INVESTOR | INTERNAL FUNDS | FINANCIAL CAPACITY | FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES | TRADE CREDIT | GOOD | SHAREHOLDER | INSTRUMENTS | EQUITY | EXTERNAL FINANCING | BIAS | PROPERTY | INFORMAL FINANCE | LOCAL STOCK MARKET | STOCK MARKET | MICROENTERPRISES | CREDITOR RIGHTS | JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE | SHARES | ACCESS TO INVESTMENT | DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING | FINANCIAL ASSETS | CORPORATE FINANCE | CONTRACT | LEGAL PROTECTION | CONFLICT OF INTEREST | ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE | BORROWER | CENTRAL BANKS | TRANSACTIONS | MINORITY SHAREHOLDER | HUMAN CAPITAL | CREDITOR | PROPERTY RIGHTS | DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS | LOAN | TRANSPARENCY | PRIVATE PARTIES | PROPERTY RIGHTS PROTECTION | DEBT MATURITY | EXTERNAL FUNDS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | FINANCIAL SERVICE | INVESTOR PROTECTION | MARKET DEVELOPMENT | PRIVATE PROPERTY | GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES | BIASES | FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION | LENDING | INSTRUMENT | MINORITY SHAREHOLDERS | ACCESS TO CREDIT | INVESTOR PROTECTIONS | SAVINGS | SALES GROWTH | LEGAL SYSTEM | STOCK MARKETS | PEOPLE | PROTECTION OF MINORITY SHAREHOLDERS | EQUITY MARKET | CAPITAL
Paper
Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0022-3808, 04/2018, Volume 126, Issue 2, pp. 525 - 587
We show that supply-side financial shocks have a large impact on firms’ investment. We develop a new methodology to separate firm borrowing shocks from bank... 
EXTERNAL FINANCE | CREDIT | TRANSMISSION | MARKET | JAPAN | MONETARY-POLICY | CRISIS | ECONOMICS | BORROWERS | ACCESS | FINANCIAL SHOCKS
Journal Article
2008, ISBN 1589066774, viii, 397
Mozambique is an economic success story in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Its remarkable achievements offer valuable lessons to other low-income countries in a... 
Book
09/1997, ISBN 9781455286010, 248
Edited by Zubair Iqbal and Ravi Kanbur, this volume consists of papers presented at a joint IMF and World Bank conference on external financing for low-income... 
Book