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2008, Directions in development. Poverty, ISBN 0821375318, xiv, 139
Poor people derive most of their income from work -- however, there is insufficient understanding of the role of employment and earnings as a linkage between... 
Poverty | Labor productivity | Labor market | Wages | Madagascar | LABOR MARKETS | PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS | RURAL POVERTY RATE | URBAN POVERTY | EMPLOYMENT STATUS | NATIONAL POVERTY LINE | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | WORKING POOR | ECONOMIC GROWTH | URBAN DEVELOPMENT | EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES | PRIVATE SECTOR | EARNINGS | SOCIAL PROTECTION MECHANISMS | ACCESS TO EDUCATION | ELDERLY POPULATION | CONTRIBUTION | GENDER GAP | SAFETY NET | CALCULATION | AGRICULTURAL WORKERS | URBAN AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | IMPLICATIONS FOR POVERTY REDUCTION | RATE OF GROWTH | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | VULNERABILITY | AID EFFECTIVENESS | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INCIDENCE OF POVERTY | VALUABLE | AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT | EMPLOYMENT SHARE | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | WORKING-AGE POPULATION | FAMILY LABOR | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | POVERTY DATA | WORKING ADULTS | LOCAL CURRENCY | POPULATION GROWTH | HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION | DRIVERS | FORMAL EDUCATION | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | CONTRIBUTIONS | ADULT WORKERS | RURAL | JOBS | RURAL AREA | AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | PRIMARY EDUCATION | DEPRECIATION | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | CONSTANT PRICES | LIVING STANDARDS | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | INCREASE IN INCOME | PACE OF URBANIZATION | RURAL POVERTY | UNSKILLED LABOR | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION | JOB CREATION | POVERTY IMPACT | ADULT POPULATION | PREVIOUS LEVEL | JOBLESS GROWTH | POVERTY IMPACT OF GROWTH | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY | WORKING CHILDREN | POPULATION CENSUS | DOWNWARD BIAS | EQUAL ACCESS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | PRODUCTIVE SECTOR | PUBLIC INVESTMENTS | RURAL POVERTY RATES | HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES | JOB SECURITY | WAGES | POOR HOUSEHOLDS | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | RURAL AREAS | LOW LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | RURAL INHABITANTS | URBANIZATION | LABOR COSTS | ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT | RURAL POPULATION | DAILY WAGE | PROGRESS | SECONDARY EDUCATION | URBAN POPULATION | LIVING STANDARD | NET EMPLOYMENT | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS | LABOR STANDARDS | PACE OF POPULATION GROWTH | SALARIED EMPLOYMENT | MIGRATION | DEPENDENCY RATIO | SKILLED WORKERS | WORKING POPULATION | RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE | SUBSISTENCE FARMERS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | DEVELOPMENT PLANS | SAVINGS | EMPLOYMENT RATES | INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION | INCOME GROWTH | POPULATION ESTIMATES | INFORMAL SECTOR | MARKET FAILURES | MIGRANT | WAGE | CHILD LABOR | LABOR MARKET FUNCTIONS | RURAL URBAN POVERTY | REMITTANCES | WAGE PREMIUM | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | POVERTY LEVEL | PENSION | PRIMARY SCHOOLING | EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE | LOW-INCOME COUNTRY | EMPLOYMENT | IMPACT ON POVERTY | WORKFORCE | WORKERS | DISSEMINATION | AGRICULTURAL SECTOR | CONSUMER | EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE | POPULATION GROWTH RATE | INCOME SOURCE | LOW EARNINGS | SALARIED WORKERS | UNEMPLOYED | RURAL HOUSEHOLDS | RURAL WORKERS | EARNING | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | INCOME PROFILE | EMPLOYMENT CREATION | LABORERS | PUBLIC WORKS | AGRICULTURAL GROWTH | ELDERLY | INCOME LEVELS | PROBABILITY | INFLATION | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPER | LEGAL STATUS | LEVEL OF EDUCATION | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | LOW-INCOME | UNSKILLED WORKERS | WORKER | COMPARABILITY ISSUES | LEVELS OF EDUCATION | LABOR MARKET CHARACTERISTICS | POPULATION GROUPS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | LIVING CONDITIONS | DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | LARGE CITIES | CASH PAYMENTS | FOOD PROCESSING | POVERTY REDUCTION | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISE | POPULATION DATA | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | GENDER EQUALITY | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | NATIONAL POVERTY | SOCIAL SECURITY | UNEMPLOYED INDIVIDUALS | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | EMPLOYMENT RATE | RURAL POOR | URBAN CENTERS | PRODUCTIVITY DATA | LABOR ORGANIZATION | NUMBER OF CHILDREN | RURAL EMPLOYMENT | SECOND JOB | UNEMPLOYMENT | CURRENT PRICES | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS | NUMBER OF PEOPLE | NUMBER OF WORKERS | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | OPEN UNEMPLOYMENT | PERMANENT JOB | QUESTIONNAIRES | HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE
Book
03/2014, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 6819
Labor market regulation is a high-profile, and often contentious, area of public policy. Although these regulations have been studied most extensively in... 
WAGE EFFECT | EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS | LABOR MARKETS | PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT | WAGE EFFECTS | LABOR MARKET DYNAMICS | BUSINESS CYCLE | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | PERMANENT WORKERS | MINIMUM WAGE | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | ECONOMIC GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | PUBLIC POLICY | PRODUCTIVITY EFFECTS | SUBSTITUTION EFFECT | LAYOFFS | PRODUCTIVITY EFFECT | HUMAN RESOURCES | RESEARCH INSTITUTE | ADVERSE EFFECTS | INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT | CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA | REGULAR WORKERS | EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION RULES | COLLECTIVE DISMISSAL | PERMANENT JOBS | SOCIAL COHESION | INDUSTRIAL LABOR | CAPITAL INVESTMENTS | JOB MARKET | EMPLOYMENT EFFECT | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | ACTIVE LABOR | FIRM SIZE | PAPERS | LABOR MARKET FLEXIBILITY | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | COLLECTIVE BARGAINING | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | CONTRACT LABOR | PUBLIC FINANCE | FIRM ENTRY | JOBS | MARKET POWER | RISK MANAGEMENT | JOB TENURE | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | POLITICAL PROCESS | INNOVATIONS | ECONOMIC CONDITIONS | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS | FIRING COSTS | WAGE FLOOR | ECONOMIC EFFECTS | EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS | LABOUR MARKET PERFORMANCE | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM | LIVING STANDARDS | WAGE INCREASE | INNOVATION | FINANCIAL MARKET | UNSKILLED LABOR | MARKET DEVELOPMENTS | EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK | JOB CREATION | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE | LABOR ADJUSTMENT | LABOR TURNOVER | LABOR MARKET REFORMS | EMPLOYMENT IMPACT | LABOR MARKET | WAGE COMPRESSION | CREATIVE DESTRUCTION | LABOUR MARKET REFORMS | LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS | PENALTIES | FIRM SIZE DISTRIBUTION | JOB SECURITY | RESEARCH METHODS | LABOR SUPPLY | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | LABOR REALLOCATION | LABOR COSTS | LABOR MARKET PERFORMANCE | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | LOW-WAGE EMPLOYMENT | STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | LABOUR DEMAND | SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY | WAGE INEQUALITY | MIGRATION | WAGE POLICIES | PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS | RESEARCHERS | WAGE DISPERSION | REGULAR CONTRACTS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | EMPLOYMENT PERFORMANCE | EMPLOYMENT FORMS | LABOUR MARKET POLICIES | JOB PERFORMANCE | TAX ADMINISTRATION | COMPETITIVENESS | INFORMAL SECTOR | MARKET FAILURES | LABOUR LAWS | FAIR | LABOR LEGISLATION | LABOUR REGULATION | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | MARKET DISTORTIONS | AGGREGATE EMPLOYMENT | WAGE BILL | LABOR MARKET RIGIDITIES | DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME | EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS | LABOUR MARKET REFORM | EMPLOYMENT | LABOUR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | LABOUR REALLOCATION | POLITICAL ECONOMY | WORKERS | MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION | LABOR LAWS | LABOUR STUDIES | ECONOMIC POLICIES | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | LABOR MARKET REGULATION | INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS | EARNING | WORKING CONDITIONS | INCOME | LABOR MARKET POLICIES | EMPLOYMENT IMPACTS | SEVERANCE PAYMENTS | ECONOMIC THEORY | LABOR MARKET REFORM | LEARNING | EXOGENOUS VARIABLES | PERMANENT WORKER | JOB LOSS | LABOR ECONOMICS | MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY | IMPERFECT INFORMATION | UNSKILLED WORKERS | WORKER | DISMISSAL | UNION DENSITY | MARKET WAGES | ACCOUNTING | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET | LABOR REGULATIONS | SUBSTITUTION | TRANSACTION COSTS | MOTIVATION | WAGE INCREASES | LABOR POLICIES | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | TRADE UNIONS | MINIMUM WAGES | WAGE SET | TRAINING COSTS | LITERATURE | LABOUR MARKET | LABOR FORCE | EMPLOYMENT DURATION | WAGE GAINS | HUMAN CAPITAL | BARGAINING POWER | LABOR REGULATION | UNEMPLOYMENT | TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT | MUNICIPALITIES | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR RELATIONS | JOB TURNOVER | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | LABOUR MARKET REGULATION | OPEN ACCESS | MARKET INTEGRATION | LOW UNEMPLOYMENT | WAGE POLICY | RESEARCH FINDINGS | LABOUR
Paper
06/2007, Directions In Development - Poverty, ISBN 9780821371077, 148
There is one asset that poor people have in abundance: labor. Thus, what distinguishes the poor from the non-poor in low income countries is, simply, their... 
Developing countries | Labor supply | Manpower policy | Congresses | Poverty | LABOR MARKETS | BUSINESS CYCLE | SERVICE DELIVERY | INDUSTRY WAGE | INTERNATIONAL POLICY | MARKET FORCES | MACROECONOMIC STABILITY | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | TRANSITION ECONOMIES | URBAN POVERTY | EMPLOYMENT STATUS | MINIMUM WAGE | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | WORKING POOR | ECONOMIC GROWTH | LABOR MARKET SEGMENTATION | POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER | EFFICIENCY WAGE THEORY | HUMAN RESOURCES | PAYING JOBS | ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY | SAFETY NET | MARKET SEGMENTS | PRECEDING SECTION | URBAN AREAS | ADVERSE EFFECTS | INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT | FEMALE LABOR FORCE | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | MANDATED BENEFITS | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES | HOUSEHOLD DYNAMICS | LEGISLATION | INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS | PRIVATE TRANSFERS | LABOR MARKET POLICY | HOUSEHOLD LEVEL | SERVANTS | LABOUR OFFICE | FIRM SIZE | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | POVERTY ALLEVIATION | INDUSTRIALIZATION | WORKING-AGE POPULATION | FAMILY LABOR | SOCIAL POLICY | PRIMARY SOURCE | LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | CONTRACT LABOR | URBAN EMPLOYMENT SURVEY | JOBS | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | PRODUCTION FUNCTION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | ADB | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | UNSKILLED LABOR | JOB CREATION | LABOUR MOBILITY | ORGANIZED LABOR | INVENTORY | JOB DESTRUCTION | FAMILY MEMBERS | MANPOWER POLICY | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY | OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY | JOB SEEKERS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | CULTURAL CHANGE | LABOR MARKET | FAMILY RESOURCES | CREATIVE DESTRUCTION | LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS | MARKET STRUCTURE | UNSKILLED JOBS | WORK FORCE | JOB SECURITY | LABOR SUPPLY | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | INSURANCE | GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT | SKILL TYPE | POOR PEOPLE | EXPENDITURES | PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | LABOUR DEMAND | ECONOMIC MOBILITY | WAGE INEQUALITY | MIGRATION | FIRM LEVEL | MONOPSONY | EMPLOYMENT POLICIES | INDUSTRIAL RELATION | DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS | WORKER PRODUCTIVITY | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOR PROGRAMS | POLICY RESEARCH | UNIONS | COMPETITIVENESS | INFORMAL SECTOR | ADJUSTMENT COSTS | COMPETITIVE MARKET | FAIR | LABOR DISPUTES | FISCAL POLICY | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | POLICY IMPLICATIONS | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | MONETARY POLICY | SUSTAINABLE GROWTH | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | LOW-INCOME COUNTRY | SOCIAL BENEFITS | LABOR MARKET EFFICIENCY | DEFICITS | EMPLOYMENT | LABOUR REALLOCATION | POLITICAL ECONOMY | WORKERS | REAL WAGES | STANDARD OF LIVING | AUTONOMY | MARKET WAGE | INTERNATIONAL TRADE | DISSEMINATION | LABOR LAWS | NUTRITION | MANPOWER | NATIONALS | SUBSIDIARY | WAGE GAP | ECONOMIC POLICIES | FEMALE LABOR | UNEMPLOYED | LABOR MARKET REGULATION | DEVELOPMENT POLICY | MIGRATION POLICIES | SOCIAL CAPITAL | EARNING | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | INCOME INEQUALITY | FIRM GROWTH | NATURAL RESOURCE | PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT | WORKING CONDITIONS | RIGID LABOR MARKETS | INCOME | LABOR MARKET POLICIES | LIFELONG LEARNING | WAGE DETERMINATION | EMPLOYEE | LABOR ECONOMICS | EARNINGS LOSSES | MARKET ANALYSIS | NATIONAL LAWS | LEGAL STATUS | POLICY DISCUSSIONS | EMPLOYMENT TRENDS | INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS | SOCIAL SERVICES | CLOSED ECONOMY | RICHER COUNTRIES | SAFETY | WORKER | SURPLUS | LEVELS OF EDUCATION | RESPECT | UNEMPLOYED PERSON | MARKET THEORY | MICROFINANCE | LABOR REGULATIONS | RURAL DEVELOPMENT | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS | LABOR MOBILITY | PRODUCTIVE FIRMS | TRANSACTION COSTS | EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES | POVERTY REDUCTION | OUTPUTS | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISE | URBAN MIGRATION | MINIMUM WAGES | FIRM DYNAMICS | FOREIGN WORKERS | LABOUR MARKET | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | COMPETITIVE MARKETS | GLOBAL POVERTY | REAL WAGE | PAID WORKERS | PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT | HIGH WAGES | HUMAN CAPITAL | LABOR ORGANIZATION | URBAN ECONOMY | MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS | RURAL EMPLOYMENT | LABOR REGULATION | COST OF LIVING | UNEMPLOYMENT | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR RELATIONS | JOB TURNOVER | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | ECONOMETRICS | POLICY MAKERS | COMPETITIVE LABOR MARKETS | LABOUR | COMPETITIVE MODEL
eBook
11/2012, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 6276
This paper reviews the findings of more than 150 studies on the impacts of four types of labor market institutions: minimum wages, employment protection... 
wage compression | informal sector workers | union membership | Current Population | job creation | labour market | teenagers | unskilled workers | employment impacts | wage policies | severance payments | wage dispersion | family ties | labor market regulations | worker | unskilled labor | employers | Development Economics | permanent worker | low unemployment | imperfect information | employment levels | industrial relations | temporary workers | productivity levels | primary source | State Intervention | Jobs | labor productivity growth | perfect competition | labor markets | firing costs | permanent employment | low-wage employment | labour market performance | labor relations | workers | immigrants | innovation | human capital | long-term unemployment | wage bargaining | job performance | employment effect | labor market performance | labor laws | teenage employment | dismissals | low-income countries | progress | equality of opportunity | competitive labor markets | rule of law | Employment stability | labor market regulation | access to employment | vulnerable groups | employment performance | employment impact | labor legislation | collective bargaining | permanent workers | discrimination | mandated benefits | total factor productivity | termination | Labor Market Institutions | market liberalization | trade unions | wage premiums | wage premium | respect | economic efficiency | competitive market | wage increases | productivity growth | temporary jobs | income | active labor market | regular contracts | capital investments | War | productivity effect | present value | labor productivity | cultural values | social returns | private sectors | employment dynamics | Aggregate employment | informal sector | market failures | labor demand | labor force | income inequality | developing countries | labor market outcome | bargaining power | personnel | social capital | income distribution | layoffs | employer-employee relationship | quantitative measures | policy implications | Policy Research Working Paper | employer behavior | high unemployment | safety | multifactor productivity growth | collective dismissal | labor force participation | labor reallocation | labor market outcomes | industrialization | Employment status | crises | youth labor | wage gains | job tenure | job security regulations | employment opportunities | active labor market programs | adverse effects | collective agreements | unemployment | high unemployment rates | labor regulations | drivers | Labor Market | severance arrangements | business cycle | formal labor market | Policy Research | labour | union wage premium | wage distribution | labor standards | family formation | union density | political process | level of development | social cohesion | labor turnover | employment effects | displaced workers | employment practices | firing | job destruction | Employment of women | employment protection rules | Employment Research | quantitative indicators | employee | labor supply | wage inequality | permanent jobs | wage effects | unionization | wage differentials | multifactor productivity | productivity effects | unemployment rate | wage floors | civil unrest | job opportunities | political economy | Labour Studies | product market | unintended consequences | economic policies | dismissal | structural unemployment | job security | product market regulations | labor costs | training costs | competitive equilibrium | working poor | youth employment | hiring | substitution effect | Earnings inequality | laid-off workers | young people | minimum wages | social policy | assessing labor market | labor codes | social inclusion | youth unemployment | minimum wage | earning | informal employment | active labor | job loss | employment contracts | employment | wage losses | firm entry | living standards | unemployment insurance | temporary employment | wage effect | employment protection legislation | working conditions | social benefits | exogenous variables
Paper
Transportation Research Part A, ISSN 0965-8564, 07/2014, Volume 65, pp. 80 - 91
Journal Article
The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, 05/2003, Volume 93, Issue 2, pp. 227 - 232
A National Academy of Sciences panel is currently investigating the incorporation of non-market goods into satellite accounts to the National Income and... 
Assessing Living Standards: From the Pre-Columbian Era to the Present | Climate change | Cost estimates | Coal fuels industry | Mortality | Crime | Metropolitan areas | Death | Climate models | Housing | Age | ECONOMICS | QUALITY | HEALTH | LIFE | Labor market | Analysis | Pricing | Studies | Standard of living | Economic models | Regression analysis
Journal Article
06/2009, IEG Fast Track Brief
This assessment reviews earnings and employment outcomes in Colombia, Tunisia, and Turkey during 1998-2007, as well as five policy areas (the MILES framework)... 
COMPETITIVENESS | LABOR MARKETS | SAFETY | COUNTRY COMPARISONS | LABOR POLICY | POLICY IMPLICATIONS | WORKER | DEBT | LABOR MARKET ISSUES | GDP | RESPECT | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | TAXATION | MACROECONOMIC STABILITY | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT | MINIMUM WAGE | EMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE | ECONOMIC STABILITY | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | LABOR REGULATIONS | POLITICAL ECONOMY | AGRICULTURE | EARNINGS GROWTH | LABOR MARKET REFORMS | EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES | FINANCIAL STABILITY | LABOR MARKET | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | SAFETY NET | MACROECONOMIC POLICIES | MINIMUM WAGES | DISSEMINATION | HEALTH SERVICES | FINANCIAL SECTOR | LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS | BANK RESTRUCTURING | CRISES | MACROECONOMIC POLICY | QUALITY OF EDUCATION | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | WAGES | DEVELOPMENT POLICY | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | INSURANCE | LEGISLATION | NON-WAGE COSTS | INCOME | MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT | PROGRESS | RIGID WAGES | EMPLOYMENT CREATION | PAYROLL TAXES | JOBS CRISIS | MIGRATION | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE PROGRAMS | EMPLOYMENT POLICIES | MACROECONOMIC STABILIZATION | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | PRIORITY SETTING | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | FINANCIAL CRISIS | TRADE LIBERALIZATION | EMPLOYMENT PERFORMANCE | JOBS | PRODUCTIVITY | RISK MANAGEMENT | STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT | TERTIARY LEVEL | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | BANK LENDING | TAX ADMINISTRATION | ECONOMIC RECOVERY | FORMAL SECTOR WAGES
Book
12/2011, Policy Research working paper, Volume WPS 5917
This paper looks into institutional and other macro determinants of prevalence of informal dependent employment, as well as informal self-employment, in... 
CHECKS | COMPETITIVENESS | INFORMAL SECTOR | WAGE EFFECT | CAPITAL STOCK | FAIR | SCALE EFFECTS | WAGE EFFECTS | BUSINESS CYCLE | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | PENSION | WAGE LEVELS | GDP | EMPLOYABILITY | UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE | TAXATION | CONTRACT ENFORCEMENT | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | EMPLOYMENT STATUS | MINIMUM WAGE | UTILITY FUNCTIONS | RIGID LABOR MARKET | ECONOMIC GROWTH | INCOME EFFECT | LOW TRUST | EMPLOYMENT MODELS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | SUBSTITUTE | SUBSTITUTION EFFECT | WAGE RATE | ENTRY BARRIER | MARKET WAGE | PRICE CONTROLS | EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION | INVESTMENT CLIMATE | COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE | FINANCIAL CAPITAL | AVERAGE WAGE | INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT | TAX RATE | AVERAGE UNEMPLOYMENT | PRODUCT MARKET | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | UNEMPLOYED | EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | DEVELOPMENT POLICY | PRODUCT MARKET REGULATIONS | LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT | INCOME LEVEL | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INCOME INEQUALITY | LABOR MARKET IMPACT | GOVERNMENT SPENDING | LABOR MARKET POLICY | WORKING CONDITIONS | INCOME | TRANSITION COUNTRIES | ACTIVE LABOR | LABOR MARKET FLEXIBILITY | TURNOVER | BANKRUPTCY | EMPLOYEE | INFORMAL ECONOMY | RETURNS | PENSION SYSTEM | FORMAL LABOR MARKET | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | UNEMPLOYMENT LEVEL | CREDIT CONSTRAINT | PRODUCT MARKET REGULATION | JOBS | INFLATION | DISCOURAGED WORKERS | PRODUCTION FUNCTION | RULE OF LAW | SIDE EFFECTS | MARGINAL COST | UTILITY MAXIMIZATION | INTERNATIONAL BANK | PRODUCT MARKETS | INNOVATION | TAX | FINANCIAL MARKET | WORKER | EMPLOYEE BENEFITS | UNION DENSITY | JOB CREATION | MARGINAL COST OF PRODUCTION | UNEMPLOYED PERSON | JOB DESTRUCTION | PASSIVE LABOR | TAX RATES | ACCOUNTING | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE | FISCAL BURDEN | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET | SUBSTITUTION | PUBLIC SERVICES | SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS | MOTIVATION | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | WAGE LEVEL | LABOR MARKET | TRADE UNIONS | TRAINING COSTS | LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS | IMPLICIT TAX | LABOR FORCE | JOB SECURITY | WAGES | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT | ADVERSE IMPACT | LABOR SUPPLY | PRODUCTION OUTPUT | REAL GDP | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | LABOR COST | PROFIT MAXIMIZATION | PRICE STABILITY | LABOR COSTS | WEALTH | BARGAINING | HUMAN CAPITAL | LABOR MARKET PERFORMANCE | PROPERTY RIGHTS | LEGAL ENVIRONMENT | PRESENT VALUE | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | EXPORTS | GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES | SCALE EFFECT | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET POLICY | UNEMPLOYMENT | INFLATIONARY PRESSURE | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | SUBSTITUTES | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS | MARGINAL PRODUCTS | TRADE UNION | GDP PER CAPITA | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOR MARKET DISCRIMINATION
Paper
08/2002
The recent economic shock provided an incentive for carrying out the analysis of Colombia's safety net of national social assistance. Even though economic... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | CHILD LABOR | CRIME | INEQUALITY | CENTRAL GOVERNMENT | DATA SOURCES | HEALTH INDICATORS | EXPENDITURE | SOCIAL DIALOGUES | GDP | INCOME SOURCES | CURRENCY UNIT | MACROECONOMIC STABILITY | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | URBAN POVERTY | COPING MECHANISMS | MINIMUM WAGE | AVAILABLE DATA | ECONOMIC GROWTH RATES | EMPLOYMENT | NATIONAL PLANNING | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS | FISCAL | ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | EXTREME POVERTY | CASH TRANSFERS | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE SPENDING | SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | WORKERS | SOCIAL PROGRAMS | SOCIAL SOLIDARITY | AUTHORITY | DATA ANALYSIS | DECENTRALIZATION | REFORM IMPLEMENTATION | SAFETY NET | DAY CARE | ECONOMIC STABILIZATION | NUTRITION | URBAN AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | HEALTH SURVEY | PROGRAM EVALUATION | EVALUATION COMPONENTS | CONSENSUS APPROACH | NET ASSESSMENT | CASE STUDY | POVERTY RATES | KEY RISKS | POOR AREAS | SCHOOLS | EDUCATION | CIVIL SOCIETY | INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS | ECONOMIC CRISES | POVERTY RISKS | GOVERNMENT SPENDING | INCOME | RISK MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS | GEOGRAPHICAL AREA | AGED | SOCIAL INVESTMENT | SOCIAL RESEARCH | SOCIAL RISKS | GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS | SOCIAL POLICY | SOCIAL RISK | HOUSEHOLD HEAD | CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK | TRAINING PROGRAMS | LOCAL GOVERNMENTS | PENSION SYSTEM | DECENTRALIZATION REFORMS | ADOLESCENTS | SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS | LABOR INCOME | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | SECTOR POLICY | SOCIAL INDICATORS | BENEFICIARY SELECTION | SOCIAL SERVICES | REFORM POLICY | SAFETY NETS | POLITICAL POWER ADAPTATION | EDUCATION LEVEL | NATIONAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT | PUBLIC SECTOR | SAFETY | BUDGET MONITORING | COMPETITIVE BIDDING | RISK POOLING | INCOME SHOCK | FISCAL DEFICITS | ECONOMIC CONTRACTION | EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT | SOCIAL SAFETY | FAMILIES | RESEARCH TEAM | SOCIAL DIMENSIONS | SOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES | SOCIAL EXPENDITURES | PENSION REFORM | NATIONAL DEBATES | SOCIAL SUPPORT | HEALTH | RISK PREVENTION | SOCIAL SECTORS | AVERAGE INCOME | OPERATIONAL INDICATORS | ASSESSING VULNERABILITY | VULNERABLE GROUPS | SOCIAL ANALYSIS | CONSTITUTION | POVERTY REDUCTION | SAFETY NET PROGRAMS | LABOR MARKET | FISCAL CRISIS | POVERTY INCIDENCE | MINIMUM WAGES | SOCIAL SAFETY NET | SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS | SOCIAL SAFETY NETS | SOCIAL PROTECTION | POLICY DIALOGUES | PRIMARY SCHOOL | YOUNG ADULTS | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | POPULATION SIZE | POVERTY INDICATORS | POOR CHILDREN | WELL-BEING | TARGETED ASSISTANCE | ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANCE | FINANCIAL SUPPORT | RURAL AREAS | SAFETY NET ISSUES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | SOCIAL WELFARE | SOCIAL INSURANCE | INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK | SCHOOL ENROLLMENT | HUMAN CAPITAL | SOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK | POOR PEOPLE | SOCIAL SECTOR | WORKFARE PROGRAM | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA | ECONOMIC CRISIS | LOCAL GOVERNMENT | POVERTY TRENDS | HOUSING | PENSIONS | SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES | UNEMPLOYMENT | POVERTY TARGETING | MIGRATION | TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT | VACCINATION | MONITORING & EVALUATION | SKILLED WORKERS | ECONOMIC RECESSION | VIOLENCE | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | HEALTH CARE | SOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT | ECONOMIC SHOCKS | GOVERNMENT POLICIES
Book
06/2002
The report, the first in an ongoing program, presents the results of a statistical analysis of household-level data for the periods 1995/1996, and 1999/2000,... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | CHILD LABOR | GROWTH DETERMINANTS | DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY | HOUSEHOLD SIZE | REGIONAL DISPARITIES | GENDER DIFFERENCES | INEQUALITY | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES | SUSTAINABLE GROWTH | EDUCATION & THE POOR | CURRENCY UNIT | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | URBAN-RURAL DRIFT | NATIONAL INCOME | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | RURAL CONDITIONS | EXPENDITURE GROUP | EMPLOYMENT | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | CASH TRANSFERS | POVERTY CHANGES | WORKERS | BASIC EDUCATION | PRIVATE SECTOR | PURCHASING POWER PARITY | DEVELOPMENT GOALS | HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION | POVERTY STATUS | SAFETY NET | EDUCATION & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | TARGETING MECHANISMS | INFLATION RATE | REDUCING POVERTY | AGRICULTURAL SECTOR | MALARIA | FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS | LIFTING | NUTRITION | URBAN AREAS | INCOME COUNTRIES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | GIRLS | MORTALITY | MEASLES | CIVIL SOCIETY | DOMESTIC CREDIT | PRIVATE TRANSFERS | INDIVIDUAL LEVEL | DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS | EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES | AGED | MEAN EXPENDITURES | RAPID GROWTH | NON-POOR HOUSEHOLDS | HOUSEHOLD HEAD | AVERAGE LEVEL | YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT POVERTY ASSESSMENTS | GROWTH ELASTICITY | ANNUAL GROWTH | SECONDARY DATA | TASK TEAM LEADER | GENDER BIAS | PRO-POOR GROWTH | NATIONAL AVERAGE | POVERTY LINES | SAFETY NETS | EDUCATION LEVEL | PUBLIC SECTOR | SAFETY | STATISTICAL ANALYSIS | GROWTH RATES | GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLES | FOOD BASKET | FOOD POVERTY LINE | JOB CREATION | MANUFACTURING SECTOR | INEQUITY | PARTNERSHIP | POVERTY PROFILE | ANNUAL RATE | CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY | ASSESSING POVERTY | PUBLIC SERVICES | DEVELOPMENT PROCESS | MEAN GROWTH | POVERTY REDUCTION | POVERTY LINE | LABOR MARKET | DATA COLLECTION | ANNUAL GROWTH RATE | POVERTY INCIDENCE | RELATIVE PRICES | COMMODITY SUBSIDIES | ABSOLUTE POVERTY LINES | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | SOCIAL SAFETY NETS | POVERTY OUTCOMES | ILLITERACY | INCOME POVERTY | DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME | HEALTH STATUS | IMMUNODEFICIENCY | LABOR FORCE | MEASURING POVERTY | POVERTY GROUPS | REGIONAL DISPARITY | ECONOMIC COOPERATION | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | POOR HOUSEHOLDS | POOR CHILDREN | RURAL AREAS | INCOME GROUPS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | FOOD SUBSIDIES | POVERTY GROUP | HUMAN CAPITAL | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT | REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION | MALNUTRITION | IMMUNIZATION | MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS | POOR PEOPLE | NON-INCOME DIMENSIONS | HOUSEHOLD DATA | POVERTY TRENDS | UNIVERSITY GRADUATES | HOUSING | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | NATIONAL ACCOUNTS | QUALITY OF LIFE | POVERTY TARGETING | UNEMPLOYMENT | EXCHANGE RATE | WIDOWS | DATA ISSUES | PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE | PRO-POOR | ABSOLUTE POVERTY | ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME | ENROLLMENT RATIO | ECONOMIC SHOCKS | POVERTY MEASURES
Book
02/2000
This report analyzes the distribution of income, constructs a poverty profile, and looks at the extent to which the poor have access to basic services in Papua... 
HOUSEHOLD SIZE | GINI INDEX | OFFICIAL POVERTY | PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION LEVEL | SINGLE POVERTY | POVERTY COMPARISONS | HEALTH INDICATORS | HEALTH PROGRAMS | ACCESSIBLE SERVICES | EXPENDITURE DATA | LOGGING | HEALTH SECTOR | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | CURRENCY UNIT | RURAL CONDITIONS | FOOD POVERTY LINES | SINGLE POVERTY LINE | EMPLOYMENT | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | NATIONAL POVERTY LINE | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FOOD EXPENDITURES | LOW INCOME | TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE | EQUIVALENT CONSUMPTION | FOOD POVERTY | BASIC EDUCATION | PURCHASING POWER PARITY | NON-FOOD EXPENDITURE | POVERTY MEASURE | RESEARCH INSTITUTE | CONSUMPTION PATTERN | HEALTH WORKERS | SAFETY NET | POVERTY | NUTRITIONAL STATUS | AGRICULTURAL SECTOR | HEALTH SERVICES | NUTRITION | REGIONAL POVERTY LINES | URBAN AREAS | IMPROVED ACCESS | INCOME COUNTRIES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION | PUBLIC HEALTH | ECONOMIC POLICIES | SEPARATE POVERTY LINES | ECONOMIC WELFARE | POVERTY RATES | RURAL HOUSEHOLDS | GNP | PRICE VARIATIONS | POOR AREAS | INCOME LEVEL | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA | DEVELOPMENT POLICIES | PRIVATE TRANSFERS | FISHING | INCOME | INCOME FLUCTUATIONS ABSOLUTE TERMS | DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS | CONSUMPTION AGGREGATE | FOOD SHARE | POVERTY ALLEVIATION | HOUSEHOLD HEAD | WATER SUPPLY | DISTRIBUTION | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | POVERTY GAP | INFORMAL SAFETY | POVERTY ALLEVIATION POLICIES | OFFICIAL POVERTY LINE | PRODUCERS | FOOD CONSUMPTION | FORMAL LABOR MARKET | STATISTICAL OFFICE | GROWTH RATE | INTERNATIONAL POVERTY LINE | CONSUMPTION DATA | INCOME LEVELS | ECONOMIC SECTORS | PER CAPITA INCOMES | PUBLIC SOCIAL PROTECTION EXPENDITURES | MALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS | SAMPLE SIZE | ANNUAL INCOME | PER CAPITA INCOME | POVERTY LEVELS | CALORIC REQUIREMENT | HEADCOUNT INDEX | HEALTH CENTERS | SOCIAL INDICATORS | PURCHASING POWER | SOCIAL SERVICES | NATIONAL AVERAGE | POVERTY LINES | SAFETY NETS | LIVING STANDARDS | NATIONAL RESEARCH | FOOD BASKET | NON-FOOD ITEMS | COMPARING POVERTY | AVERAGE POVERTY LINE | POVERTY PROFILES | FOOD POVERTY LINE | AVERAGE CONSUMPTION | AVERAGE POVERTY | NUTRITIONAL INTAKE | HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS | MEAN CONSUMPTION | DRINKING WATER | GENDER GAPS | GINI COEFFICIENT | LIFE EXPECTANCY | POVERTY PROFILE | POPULATION DENSITIES | LIVING CONDITIONS | BASIC NEEDS | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | HIGH POVERTY | REFORM PROGRAM | PUBLIC SERVICES | ASSESSING POVERTY | POVERTY REDUCTION | CONSUMPTION PATTERNS | POVERTY LINE | EXPENDITURE GROUPS | LABOR MARKET | NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE | CLEAN WATER | CONSUMPTION LEVEL | DATA COLLECTION | SOCIAL SAFETY NETS | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | PUBLIC SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS | PRIMARY SCHOOL | HEALTH STATUS | RESOURCE ALLOCATION | CONSUMPTION | LABOR FORCE | NATIONAL POVERTY | MEASURING POVERTY | DEMOGRAPHICS | FOOD INTAKE | WAGES | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | POOR HOUSEHOLDS | RURAL POOR | INSURANCE | POVERTY MONITORING | RURAL AREAS | INCOME GROUPS | REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE | URBAN HOUSEHOLDS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | SOCIAL INSURANCE | REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION | MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS | POOR PEOPLE | RURAL POPULATION | NATURAL RESOURCES | URBAN POPULATION | LIVING STANDARD | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT | EXCHANGE RATE | REGIONAL DIFFERENCES | DIVERSIFICATION | HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS | SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS | PUBLIC EXPENDITURES | INFANT MORTALITY | RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE | POVERTY ALLEVIATION MECHANISMS | HEALTH CARE | PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE | RELATIVE IMPORTANCE | POVERTY MEASURES | CASH INCOME | OVERALL EXPENDITURE
Book
01/2005, en breve, Volume 61
In 2002, half of Mexico's population lived in poverty and one fifth in extreme poverty, slightly lower than before the 1994-1995 crisis. Mexico has made major... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | LATIN AMERICAN | URBAN POOR | PUBLIC SECTOR | SOCIAL SPENDING | TERTIARY EDUCATION | INEQUALITY | SERVICE DELIVERY | SOCIAL EXCLUSION | URBAN WORKERS | PROGRAM DESIGNS | POLICY REFORMS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | LAND REFORM | GINI COEFFICIENT | ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | EXTREME POVERTY | CASH TRANSFERS | VULNERABLE GROUPS | POVERTY CHANGES | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY | SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT | ASSESSING POVERTY | PUBLIC SERVICES | GROWTH PROCESS | AVERAGE INCOMES | POVERTY REDUCTION | POVERTY LINE | SOCIAL PROGRAMS | TAX REFORM | LABOR MARKET | SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS | REDUCING POVERTY | POVERTY OUTCOMES | ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT | INCOME POVERTY | NUTRITION | SOCIAL PROTECTION | URBAN AREAS | REAL TERMS | SERVICE PROVISION | SOCIAL SECURITY | POOR HOUSEHOLDS | POOR CHILDREN | RURAL AREAS | INCOME GROUPS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT | OLD AGE | PUBLIC SPENDING | HUMAN CAPITAL | INCOME INEQUALITY | INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT | INCOME | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | RAPID GROWTH | EXCLUDED GROUPS | EXCHANGE RATE | PUBLIC WORKS | SOCIAL POLICY | PUBLIC ACTION | INTERNATIONAL POVERTY LINES | CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK | INDIGENOUS GROUPS | PRO-POOR | INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION | TARGETING | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS | HEALTH INSURANCE | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | SOCIAL INCLUSION | DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS | RISK MANAGEMENT | SERVICE PROVIDERS | POVERTY LEVELS | TARGETED TRANSFER PROGRAMS | POOR GROWTH | PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS | INCOME GROWTH | SOCIAL SERVICES
Book
08/2008
Using recent matched employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector in 20 Sub-Saharan African countries, the authors analyze how the supply of skills and... 
WAGE EFFECT | LABOR MARKETS | SKILL SHORTAGES | RATES OF RETURN | SALARIES | WAGE PREMIUM | UNSKILLED WORKER | AGE-EARNINGS | INDUSTRY WAGE | OLDER WORKERS | TOTAL WORKER | TAXATION | WAGE BILL | PERMANENT WORKERS | CONTRACT ENFORCEMENT | PRODUCTION WORKER | MIDDLE EAST | FIRM PERFORMANCE | EMPLOYMENT | SKILLED LABOR | SECONDARY SCHOOL | LARGE FIRMS | ACCURATE ESTIMATES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FIRM SURVEY | POLITICAL ECONOMY | PRIVATE SECTOR | EARNINGS | WAGE STRUCTURE | ACCESS TO EDUCATION | HUMAN RESOURCES | FEMALE WORKER | CONTRIBUTION | AVERAGE EDUCATION LEVEL | CALCULATION | INVESTMENT CLIMATE | PRODUCTION WORKERS | COST OF LABOR | ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT | AGE-EARNINGS PROFILES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | LABOR MARKET RIGIDITY | FIRM SURVEYS | PRODUCT MARKET | CURRENCY UNITS | YOUNGER WORKERS | SEVERANCE PAY | SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA | ANNUAL WAGES | PREVIOUS SECTION | TEMPORARY WORKERS | VOCATIONAL TRAINING | PUBLIC PENSIONS | FEMALE WORKERS | PUBLIC SERVICE | LABOR MARKET POLICY | UNION MEMBERSHIP | AGE GROUP | INCOME | PRODUCTIVITY LEVEL | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | VALUABLE | EARLY RETIREMENT | FIRM SIZE | SALES | SEVERANCE PAYMENTS | LOCAL CURRENCY | WAGE DETERMINATION | BANKRUPTCY | EMPLOYEE | PRODUCTIVITIES | LABOR ECONOMICS | OCCUPATIONS | UNION MEMBERSHIP RATES | OCCUPATION | PRODUCTION FUNCTION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | STOCKS | TEACHERS | SKILL SHORTAGE | ANNUAL LABOR COST | PRIMARY EDUCATION | LATIN AMERICAN | WORTH | EDUCATIONAL DISTRIBUTION | FIRING COSTS | COUNTRY COMPARISONS | WAGE INCREASE | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | UNSKILLED WORKERS | WORKER | UNION DENSITY | NOMINAL WAGES | QUESTIONNAIRE | ACCOUNTING | EFFICIENCY WAGES | RENTS | LABOR REGULATIONS | NORTH AFRICA | SENIOR | MOTIVATION | AGE CATEGORIES | LABOR MARKET | MINIMUM WAGES | BRAIN DRAIN | FOREIGN WORKERS | LEATHER INDUSTRY | LABOR FORCE | WAGE GAPS | JOB SECURITY | UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | LABOR SUPPLY | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | PAID WORKERS | LABOR COSTS | BARGAINING | HUMAN CAPITAL | BARGAINING POWER | FOREIGN OWNERSHIP | EXCHANGE RATES | SECONDARY EDUCATION | CALCULATIONS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | REGRESSION ANALYSIS | AGE GROUPS | LABOR REGULATION | COST OF LIVING | EXCHANGE RATE | FIRM LEVEL | FOREIGN INVESTMENT | LIVING COSTS | LABOR RELATIONS | ANNUAL WAGE | LARGE FIRM | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | LABOR MANAGEMENT | YOUNG WORKERS | TRADE UNION | HIGH WAGE | ACCESS TO CREDIT | PRODUCTIVITY | LABOUR STATISTICS | LABOUR
Paper
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, ISSN 0002-7162, 3/1996, Volume 544, Issue 1, pp. 140 - 153
Today, with the longest recession since World War II, unemployment is a growing fear among Japan's 52 million wage and salary earners. White-collar employees... 
Assessing Ongoing Reforms | Employment | Workforce | Labor markets | Employees | Economic growth rate | Labor | Wages | Unemployment | Economic recessions | Employee relations | POLITICAL SCIENCE | SOCIAL SCIENCES, INTERDISCIPLINARY | Corporations, Japanese | Full employment policies | Labor policy | Human resource management | Japan
Journal Article
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, ISSN 0002-7162, 3/1996, Volume 544, Issue 1, pp. 95 - 110
This article explores the response taken by Hawaii's people and society to workers displaced by the closing of sugar and pineapple plantations. Rooted in... 
Tourism | Labor economics | Assessing Ongoing Reforms | Plantations | Labor markets | Business economics | Sugar industry | Union contracts | Housing | Economic recessions | Political parties | POLITICAL SCIENCE | SOCIAL SCIENCES, INTERDISCIPLINARY | Hawaii | Manpower policy | Employment | Economic development | Fruit industry
Journal Article
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, ISSN 0002-7162, 3/1996, Volume 544, Issue 1, pp. 83 - 94
With a strong economy bringing skill shortages in technical jobs, Austin, Texas, has sought to learn the essentials of the German apprenticeship system for the... 
Industrial training | Learning | Training | Assessing Ongoing Reforms | Job training | Employment | Trade and industrial education | Vocational education | Labor markets | Apprenticeships | Mayors | POLITICAL SCIENCE | SOCIAL SCIENCES, INTERDISCIPLINARY | Services | Apprenticeship | Occupational training
Journal Article
06/2012, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 6084
This paper attempts to explore certain aspects underlying the substantial improvement in 8th grade student performance in Ghana on the Trends in International... 
LABOR MARKETS | LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION | TERTIARY EDUCATION | LIFE SKILLS | TEACHER CERTIFICATION | ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT | TEXTBOOKS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | PRIVATE SCHOOL | LOWER SECONDARY | EMPLOYMENT | DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS | INSTRUCTION | STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT | LOWER ACHIEVEMENT | PRIMARY SCHOOLS | SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT | BASIC EDUCATION | ACCESS TO EDUCATION | HUMAN RESOURCES | CLASS SIZE | GENDER GAP | EDUCATION ASSESSMENT | FEMALE TEACHER | COGNITIVE ACHIEVEMENT | INCENTIVES FOR TEACHERS | GIRLS | COMMUNITY SCHOOL | HOME LANGUAGE | PUBLIC SCHOOLS | TEACHER | TUITION | SCHOOL ENROLMENT | TERTIARY TEACHER EDUCATION | ASSESSING LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT | MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION | TEST SCORES | EDUCATIONAL EXPANSION | EDUCATION SECTOR | PARENT EDUCATION | SPORTS | SCHOOL COMMUNITY | EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES | SOCIAL SCIENCES | LITERACY | PAPERS | GRADE SCIENCE | SCHOOL LOCATION | ABSENTEEISM | NUMERACY | LEARNING | UNTRAINED TEACHERS | MINISTRY OF EDUCATION | TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS | QUALITY OF TEACHING | SMALLER NUMBER | TEACHER TRAINING | HIGH SCHOOL | TEACHERS | HIGHER ENROLMENT | EDUCATION LEVEL | TEACHER TRAINING COLLEGES | STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS | STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS | EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS | UNIVERSITY EDUCATION | BOOKS AT HOME | GENDER GAP IN SCIENCE | MALE STUDENT | EDUCATION ECONOMICS | RURAL SCHOOL | STUDENT SCORES | LITERACY INSTRUCTION | STUDENT ENROLMENT | DISADVANTAGED PUPILS | FUNCTIONAL SKILLS | UPPER SECONDARY TEACHER | YOUTH | COGNITIVE SKILLS | LITERATURE | QUALITY OF EDUCATION | UNIVERSAL ACCESS | CERTIFIED TEACHERS | EDUCATION FOR ALL | AVERAGE SCORE | SCIENCE SCORES | STUDENT PERFORMANCE | RURAL AREAS | HOMEWORK | NATIONAL EDUCATION | STUDENT OUTCOMES | SCHOOL TEACHER | SCHOOL PRINCIPALS | STUDENT POPULATION | STUDENT BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS | PRIVATE SCHOOLS | PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS | EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE | RESEARCHERS | LEARNING OUTCOMES | SCIENCE STUDY | OPEN ACCESS | SCHOOL EDUCATION | STUDENT LEARNING | DAY SCHOOL | UPPER SECONDARY
Paper
08/2005, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 3682
The importance of distributional issues in policymaking creates a need for empirical tools to assess the social impact of economic shocks and policies. This... 
INEQUALITY COMPONENT | HOUSEHOLD SIZE | OBSERVED INCREASE | REGIONAL DISPARITIES | GINI INDEX | LAND OWNERSHIP | POVERTY INDICATOR | POVERTY COMPARISONS | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | BASE YEAR | MONETARY POLICY | GDP | INCOME SOURCES | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | INTERMEDIATE GOODS | DATA AVAILABILITY | AGGREGATE LEVEL | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS | ECONOMIC OUTCOMES | DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS | EMPLOYMENT STATUS | PRICE CHANGES | MINIMUM WAGE | CONSUMERS | EMPLOYMENT | POLICY ANALYSIS | ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | MEAN INCOMES | SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION | SQUARED POVERTY GAP | ENDOGENOUS VARIABLES | AGRICULTURE | CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES | INEQUALITY CONSTANT | POVERTY CHANGES | PROFIT FUNCTIONS | PUBLIC POLICY | FACTOR PRICES | PURCHASING POWER PARITY | INCOME GENERATION | MEAN INCOME | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL | BENCHMARK | MONEY SUPPLY | EQUILIBRIUM | MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK | AGRICULTURAL TRADE | LORENZ CURVE | FINANCIAL SECTOR | URBAN AREAS | NATIONAL LEVEL | PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION | CURRENCY UNITS | LIQUIDITY | ECONOMIC WELFARE | PROPORTIONATE CHANGES | POVERTY RATES | AGGREGATE OUTPUT | DEMAND FUNCTIONS | FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | POLICY REFORM | INCOME LEVEL | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INCOME INEQUALITY | HOUSEHOLD LEVEL | INCOME | MEAN LOG DEVIATION | REAL GROWTH | REDUCED POVERTY | OUTPUT GROWTH | POPULATION SHARE | POVERTY ASSESSMENT | RAPID GROWTH | POVERTY RATE | DEMAND CURVES | HOUSEHOLD HEAD | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | POVERTY GAP | EXOGENOUS VARIABLES | LOCAL CURRENCY | POPULATION GROWTH | PRODUCERS | TRADE REFORMS | GDP DEFLATOR | ANNUAL GROWTH | CAPITAL FLOWS | POLITICAL FACTORS | WAGE INCOME | WAGE RATES | GROWTH RATE | INCOME LEVELS | POLICY IMPACT | TRADE LIBERALIZATION | POVERTY ISSUES | POLICY MAKING | AGGREGATE GROWTH | PER CAPITA INCOME | POVERTY DYNAMICS | SOCIAL INDICATORS | UTILITY FUNCTION | CPI | DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES | PURCHASING POWER | SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS | DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACT | WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION | NATIONAL AVERAGE | POVERTY LINES | ALTERNATIVE GROWTH PATHS | LIVING STANDARDS | GROWTH RATES | INEQUALITY MEASURES | CONSUMPTION DISTRIBUTION | RURAL POVERTY | POLICY CHOICES | SOCIAL POLICIES | POVERTY HEADCOUNT | MEAN CONSUMPTION | POLICY REFORMS | MACROECONOMIC SHOCKS | OPTIMIZING BEHAVIOR | DISPOSABLE INCOME | GINI COEFFICIENT | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY | ASSESSING POVERTY | DISTRIBUTIONAL DATA | DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPLICATIONS | POVERTY REDUCTION | ECONOMIC STAGNATION | FIXED PRICES | POVERTY LINE | LABOR MARKET | ELASTICITIES | HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOR | POLICY RESPONSE | OIL | POVERTY INCIDENCE | POLICY ISSUES | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | POVERTY OUTCOMES | POVERTY INDEXES | POLICY OPTIONS | DATA SETS | RESOURCE ALLOCATION | NATIONAL POVERTY | HEADCOUNT POVERTY | OPEN ECONOMIES | WAGES | MACROECONOMIC MODELS | MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS | POVERTY ANALYSIS | RURAL AREAS | REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE | URBAN HOUSEHOLDS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | GROWTH MODELS | IMPORTS | HOUSEHOLD WELFARE | REGRESSION ANALYSIS | NATIONAL ACCOUNTS | MARGINAL UTILITY | EXCHANGE RATE | POLICY INSTRUMENTS | GROWTH COMPONENT | PUBLIC EXPENDITURE | HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS | DATA SET | POPULATION GROWTH RATES | RESOURCE ENDOWMENTS | POLICY RESEARCH | SAVINGS | TRADE SHOCKS | OPTIMIZATION | ECONOMIC SHOCKS | POVERTY MEASURES | TRADE BARRIERS
Paper
09/2000, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 2440
Countries receiving debt rel