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Geotechnical Testing Journal, ISSN 0149-6115, 01/2019, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp. 156 - 179
This study documents the development of a procedure for the identification of the depth and type of ballast fouling using the time domain reflectometry (TDR)... 
Dielectric permittivity | Electrical conductivity | Fouling | Railroad | Ballast | Time domain reflectometry | GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR | TDR | railroad | SENSITIVITY | fouling | ballast | time domain reflectometry | dielectric permittivity | MOISTURE | GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | ENGINEERING, GEOLOGICAL | electrical conductivity | SOIL-WATER CONTENT
Journal Article
Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, 11/2018, Volume 190, pp. 881 - 895
•Increase in breakdown fouling does not result in the loss of strength at constant water content.•With the increase in breakdown fouling, the friction angle... 
Railroad | Fouling | Deformation properties | Ballast | Moisture | Triaxial test | Track | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | CONFINING PRESSURE | FOULED BALLAST | ENGINEERING, CIVIL | CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING TECHNOLOGY | RAILWAY TRACK | SUBSTRUCTURE | Mining engineering | Usage | Ballast (Railroads) | Analysis | Infiltration (Hydrology)
Journal Article
Geotextiles and Geomembranes, ISSN 0266-1144, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp. 313 - 322
This paper presents a study of how the interface between ballast and geogrid copes with fouling by coal fines. The stress-displacement behavior of fresh and... 
Coal fines | Fouling | Ballast | Geogrids | GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | SHEAR-STRENGTH | CONFINING PRESSURE | ENGINEERING, GEOLOGICAL | RAILWAY | Analysis | Rock mechanics | Stresses | Coal | Shear strength | Mathematical models | Shearing
Journal Article
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ISSN 1090-0241, 04/2018, Volume 144, Issue 4, p. 2818001
Journal Article
Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, 10/2019, Volume 169, pp. 183 - 198
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become a widely used trackbed inspection tool for railroad maintenance engineers. The method is attractive, due to the... 
Ground Penetrating Radar | Railway | Fouling | Ballast | Scattering | GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR | GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | MINING & MINERAL PROCESSING | CONSTANT | Railroads | Measurement | Radar systems
Journal Article
Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, 04/2018, Volume 167, pp. 514 - 523
•Hydraulic conductivity of ballast was investigated by large-scale permeability test.•Permeability of ballast was compared for different initial... 
Hydraulic conductivity | Darcy’s law | Permeability | Ballast fouling | Power law | Railway ballast | Darcy's law | DRAINAGE | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | TRACK | CONCRETE | ENGINEERING, CIVIL | CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING TECHNOLOGY | NON-DARCY FLOW | WATER | Mechanical properties | Porosity | Building materials | Analysis | Railroads | Hydrogeology | Hydraulic measurements
Journal Article
Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, 03/2016, Volume 126, pp. 183 - 190
GPR is widely used for ballast fouling identification, however, there are no robust guidelines to find the degree and type of fouling quantitatively. In this... 
Fouling percentage | GPR | Dielectric constant | Fouling | Railway ballast | GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | MINING & MINERAL PROCESSING | Railroads | Ground penetrating radar | Analysis | Electromagnetic waves | Electric waves | Electromagnetic radiation | Electric properties | Antennas (Electronics) | Ballast | Coal | Grounds | Joining | Iron | Screens | Antennas
Journal Article
Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, 01/2012, Volume 2289, Issue 2289, pp. 95 - 102
Ballast fouling is detrimental to railroad track functions. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), a nondestructive testing tool, has been used to access... 
TRANSPORTATION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY | ENGINEERING, CIVIL | Wavelet | Wavelet transforms | Fouling | Scattering | Ballast | Tools | Cleaning | Assessments
Journal Article
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, ISSN 0008-3674, 2/2011, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp. 322 - 326
Journal Article
Geotechnical Testing Journal, ISSN 0149-6115, 07/2012, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp. 1 - 12
The ballast layer is designed to be free draining, but when the voids of the granular medium are wholly or partially filled because of the intrusion of fine... 
Drainage | Hydraulic conductivity | Void contaminant index | Fouling material | Ballast
Journal Article
Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, 04/2018, Volume 151, pp. 263 - 273
Ballast plays an important role in the stability of railway track systems. The effectiveness of the ballast in maintaining the track stability is very much... 
GPR | Assessment technique | Railway | Quality index | Ballast | Maintenance planning | INSPECTION | GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR | MODEL | FOULED BALLAST | TRACK | DETERIORATION | GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | MINING & MINERAL PROCESSING | Railroads | Maintenance and repair | Algorithms
Journal Article
Transportation Geotechnics, ISSN 2214-3912, 12/2019, Volume 21, p. 100278
The introduction of fouling, or finer grained material into the voids of railroad ballast is one of the main issues effecting ballast performance. Fouling... 
Triaxial test | Performance | Ballast | Clay fouling | Box test | ENGINEERING, CIVIL | BEHAVIOR | ENGINEERING, GEOLOGICAL | FOULED BALLAST
Journal Article
Diversity and Distributions, ISSN 1366-9516, 01/2010, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp. 132 - 143
Journal Article