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calciothermic reduction (186) 186
metallurgy & metallurgical engineering (86) 86
materials science, multidisciplinary (85) 85
titanium (66) 66
electrolysis (51) 51
cacl2 (48) 48
calcium (44) 44
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calcium chloride (35) 35
reduction (35) 35
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electrochemical reduction (25) 25
electrochemistry (25) 25
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characterization and evaluation of materials (18) 18
chloride (18) 18
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oxides (15) 15
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chemistry, multidisciplinary (14) 14
oxygen (14) 14
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analysis (13) 13
direct electrochemical reduction (13) 13
material science (13) 13
surfaces and interfaces, thin films (13) 13
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fused-salts (12) 12
metallurgy (12) 12
nanotechnology (12) 12
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titanherstellung (10) 10
chemische reduktion (9) 9
engineering, chemical (9) 9
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materials science, general (9) 9
melts (9) 9
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oxid (9) 9
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low-oxygen titanium (7) 7
magnesium (7) 7
materials science, coatings & films (7) 7
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Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, 01/2017, Volume 308, Issue C, pp. 299 - 310
The development of low cost titanium metal production processes has challenged the Ti research and industrial communities around the world for decades. The... 
Reduction | Magnesium | Hydrogen | Ti metal powder | Deoxygenation | TiO2 | TiO | DEOXIDATION | ALLOY POWDER | SOLUBILITY | ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL | O SOLID-SOLUTION | ENGINEERING, ENVIRONMENTAL | CALCIUM REDUCTANT | OXIDES | TITANIUM-DIOXIDE | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | CHLORIDE
Journal Article
Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, 4/2014, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp. 3215 - 3228
Solid electrode processes fall in the central focus of electrochemistry due to their broad-based applications in electrochemical energy storage/conversion... 
IN-SITU ELECTROLYSIS | OXIDE PRECURSORS | CACL2 | 3-PHASE INTERLINES | TUNGSTEN POWDER | CALCIUM-CHLORIDE | DEOXIDATION | TITANIUM | CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | TIO2 | Cathodic polarization | Reduction (electrolytic) | Semiconductors | Oxides | Fused salts | Deposition | Cathodes | Melts
Journal Article
Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, 03/2020, Volume 173, p. 109133
Journal Article
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, 11/2018, Volume 267, pp. 13 - 21
This paper reports the preparation of Ti microparticles that are angular and spherical in shape through the combustion of a TiO + αCa (where α is moles of Ca)... 
Titanium | Combustion synthesis | Calciothermic reduction | Spherical particle | Titanium dioxide | CHEMISTRY, PHYSICAL | ATOMIZATION | CHEMICAL PATHWAY | TI METAL | CHEMISTRY, INORGANIC & NUCLEAR
Journal Article
Materials Transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, 2017, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp. 367 - 370
In this study, we reduce TiS2 to Ti via both calciothermic reduction and electrolysis in a CaCl2 melt. Upon calcium reduction at 1133 K in CaCl2 melt, the... 
Molten salt electrolysis | Titanium disulfide | Calciothermic reduction | CAO | calciothermic reduction | IN-SITU ELECTROLYSIS | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | METALLURGY & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING | titanium disulfide | molten salt electrolysis | MOLTEN CACL2 | TITANIUM | TIO2
Journal Article
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, ISSN 0022-3697, 09/2014, Volume 75, Issue 9, pp. 1041 - 1048
Journal Article
Materials Science & Engineering C, ISSN 0928-4931, 10/2018, Volume 91, pp. 125 - 134
Journal Article
by Li, Q and Zhu, XF and Zhang, Y and Fang, ZGZ and Zheng, SL and Sun, P and Xia, Y and Li, P and Zou, X
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, ISSN 0009-2509, 02/2019, Volume 195, pp. 484 - 493
Hydrogen assisted magnesiothermic reduction (HAMR) of TiO2 is a promising new process developed recently to produce Ti metal with low cost and less energy... 
Oxygen contents | ASSISTED MAGNESIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | ELECTROLYSIS | LIMIT | ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL | Phase transformation | Morphology | METAL | TITANIUM-DIOXIDE | POWDER | TiO2 sintering | Mg reduction | CAMBRIDGE PROCESS | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION
Journal Article
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, 11/2016, Volume 684, pp. 699 - 706
SrCl -based molten salt system, i.e. SrCl –KCl, was selected to enhance the electrochemical reduction of TiO powder via OS process, utilizing both high... 
Electrochemical reduction | TiO2 powder | Titanium powder | SrCl2–KCl melt | TiO | powder | KCl melt | SrCl | IN-SITU ELECTROLYSIS | OXIDE | CACL2 | LICL | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | METALLURGY & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING | CHEMISTRY, PHYSICAL | SALT | CHROMIUM POWDER | SrCl2-KCl melt | CALCIUM-CHLORIDE | ALLOY | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | TIO2
Journal Article
Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, 02/2011, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp. 2771 - 2780
The Fray Farthing and Chen (FFC) and Ono and Suzuki (OS) processes were developed for the reduction of titanium oxide to titanium metal by electrolysis in high... 
Cyclic voltammetry | Cerium | Electrochemical reduction | Molten salts | ELECTROCHEMISTRY | ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION | EUTECTIC MELT | CACL2 | LICL | MOLTEN CALCIUM-CHLORIDE | SALT | KCL | TITANIUM-DIOXIDE | POWDER | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | Titanium oxides | Solvents | Reduction (electrolytic) | Electrolysis | Pathways | Alkali metals | Chlorides | Cerium oxide
Journal Article
by Lefler, H and Fang, ZZ and Zhang, Y and Sun, P and Xia, Y
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B-PROCESS METALLURGY AND MATERIALS PROCESSING SCIENCE, ISSN 1073-5615, 12/2018, Volume 49, Issue 6, pp. 2998 - 3006
Journal Article
Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, 06/2013, Volume 100, pp. 293 - 299
The electrochemical decomposition of CO gas in LiCl–Li O or CaCl –CaO molten salt was studied to produce carbon. This process consists of the electrochemical... 
ZrO2 solid electrolyte | Carbon | CO2 gas | Electro-reduction | Molten salt | ZrO | gas | solid electrolyte | CO | CAO | ELECTROCHEMISTRY | IN-SITU ELECTROLYSIS | CACL2 | DIOXIDE | POWDER | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | Reduction (electrolytic) | Carbon dioxide | Fused salts | Solid electrolytes | Decomposition | Oxygen ions | Zirconium dioxide
Journal Article
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, 2018, Volume 165, Issue 3, pp. E97 - E107
Ti3AlC2 has been directly synthesized from TiO2/Al2O3/C mixture precursors (3TiO(2)/0.5Al(2)O(3)/1.5C and 2TiO(2)/0.5Al(2)O(3)/C) by a molten salt electrolysis... 
ELECTROCHEMISTRY | LIQUID REACTION SYNTHESIS | SELECTIVE EXTRACTION | POWDER MIXTURE | MOLTEN CALCIUM-CHLORIDE | TRANSITION-METAL CARBIDES | TI-C SYSTEMS | DIRECT ELECTROSYNTHESIS | MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES | HIGH-TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS | MATERIALS SCIENCE, COATINGS & FILMS | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION
Journal Article
JOM, ISSN 1047-4838, 10/2019, Volume 71, Issue 10, pp. 3606 - 3613
A novel approach to directly produce Ti-Nb alloys through direct magnesiothermic reduction from intermediate TiNb2O7 (TNO) is demonstrated. Using a combination... 
Environment, general | Engineering | Earth Sciences, general | Engineering, general | Physics, general | Chemistry/Food Science, general | POWDERS | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | METALLURGY & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING | MINING & MINERAL PROCESSING | MINERALOGY | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION
Journal Article
Materials Transactions, ISSN 1345-9678, 2017, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp. 361 - 366
We report a novel process to produce metallic titanium from titanium dioxide.the raw material typically used in the conventional production of titanium... 
Titanium | Titanium nitride | Gibbs free energy | Nitrogen reaction | Thermolysis | ELECTROLYSIS | nitrogen reaction | thermolysis | titanium | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | METALLURGY & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING | MOLTEN CACL2 | titanium nitride | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION
Journal Article
Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, 09/2015, Volume 17, Issue 9, pp. 1276 - 1281
Production of titanium is challenging and expensive due to the energy energy‐intensive and time‐consuming processes used at present. Current commercial... 
COST | METAL | MOLTEN CALCIUM-CHLORIDE | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | CALCIOTHERMIC REDUCTION | Titanium dioxide | Powders | Analysis | Reduction | Sodium | Phase transformations | Titanium | Metal powders | Magnesium | Dendritic structure | Quantitative analysis
Journal Article
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, 01/2015, Volume 620, pp. 256 - 262
Phase equilibria of the system Ca–Ta–O is established by equilibrating eleven samples at 1200 K for prolonged periods and phase identification in quenched... 
Gibbs energy | CaTa2O6 | Ca4Ta2O9 | Ca2Ta2O7 | CaTa4O11 | Calciothermic reduction of Ta2O5 | CaTa | Calciothermic reduction of Ta | NIOBIUM | OXIDE | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | METALLURGY & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING | CHEMISTRY, PHYSICAL | ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION | CRYSTAL | POWDER | CHLORIDE
Journal Article
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