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Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, 04/2019, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp. 473 - 493
Lead white is a man-made white pigment commonly used in works of art. In this study, the possibility of radiocarbon dating lead white pigments alone and in oil... 
lead white | stack process | paintings | micro-sampling | pigment | carbonates | radiocarbon dating | GEOCHEMISTRY & GEOPHYSICS | C-14 | MICADAS
Journal Article
Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, 12/2017, Volume 89, Issue 24, pp. 13203 - 13211
Microsamples collected on 27 major paintings by Old European Masters dating from the 14th to the late 19th centuries were analyzed using synchrotron-based... 
REFINEMENT | CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL | PBCO3 | MAPS | POWDER DIFFRACTION | CERUSSITE | THIN-SECTIONS
Journal Article
Microchemical Journal, ISSN 0026-265X, 03/2016, Volume 125, pp. 43 - 49
Fifteen lead white-containing painting samples, about 1–3 μg in weight, from a selection of easel painting masterpieces of the Louvre and other French museums,... 
Lead white | Cerussite | Paintings | Rietveld | Synchrotron diffraction | Hydrocerussite | REFINEMENT | CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL | CARBONATES | PBCO3 | POWDER DIFFRACTION | X-RAY-DIFFRACTION | Analysis | Particle accelerators
Journal Article
Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, 12/2017, Volume 89, Issue 24, p. 13203
Microsamples collected on 27 major paintings by Old European Masters dating from the 14th to the late 19th centuries were analyzed using synchrotron-based... 
X rays | Diffraction | Pigments | Lead | X-ray diffraction | Mapping | Microstructure | Artists | Painting
Journal Article
Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, 03/2017, Volume 89, Issue 5, pp. 2909 - 2918
The lead white pigment, composed of two main mineral phases cerussite PbCO3 and hydrocerussite 2PbCO3·Pb­(OH)2, has been used in paintings since the Antiquity.... 
CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL | CARBONATES | PBCO3 | LUMINESCENCE | SPECTROSCOPY | LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE | OPTICAL-PROPERTIES | CERUSSITE | CRYSTALS | IMPURITIES | OIL PAINTINGS
Journal Article
Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, 03/2017, Volume 89, Issue 5, p. 2909
  The lead white pigment, composed of two main mineral phases cerussite PbCO^sub 3^ and hydrocerussite 2PbCO^sub 3^ Pb(OH)^sub 2^, has been used in paintings... 
Luminescence | Lead | Pigments | Minerals | Emissions
Journal Article
Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, ISSN 0168-583X, 01/2018, Volume 415, pp. 64 - 71
Analytical techniques using proton beams with energy in the MeV range are commonly used to study archeological artefact and artistic objects. However ion beams... 
Lead-white pigment | Cerussite | Molecular defects | Ion-beam modification | Hydrocerussite | EPR spectroscopy | NITRATE | PHYSICS, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR & CHEMICAL | OPTICAL-PROPERTIES | PHYSICS, NUCLEAR | DAMAGE | INSTRUMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION | RESONANCE | NUCLEAR SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY | CRYSTALS | or physical chemistry | Chemical Sciences | Theoretical and
Journal Article
Applied Physics A, ISSN 0947-8396, 12/2007, Volume 89, Issue 4, pp. 825 - 832
Journal Article
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1387-3806, 05/2019, Volume 439, pp. 19 - 26
The pigment lead white ((PbCO ) ·Pb(OH) ) was analyzed by LDI-MS/MS and LDI-Orbitrap-MS/MS for the first time. The elucidation of formulae from a suite of... 
Laser desorption mass spectrometry | Pigment | Cluster | Lead white | Art | RATIOS | PHYSICS, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR & CHEMICAL | MAGIC NUMBERS | SIMPLE METAL-CLUSTERS | SPECTROSCOPY | LASER-ABLATION | ANCIENT | PHYSICS | SPECTRA | IONIZATION | Medical colleges | Mass spectrometry | Analysis
Journal Article
Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), ISSN 1359-7345, 02/2019, Volume 55, Issue 13, pp. 1931 - 1934
The surface of many Old Master paintings has been affected by the appearance of whitish lead-rich deposits, which are often difficult to fully characterise,... 
LEAD WHITE PIGMENT | OIL | CARBOXYLATES | CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | SOAPS
Journal Article
Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), ISSN 1359-7345, 02/2019, Volume 55, Issue 13, pp. 1931 - 1934
The surface of many Old Master paintings has been affected by the appearance of whitish lead-rich deposits, which are often difficult to fully characterise,... 
Journal Article
Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, 9/2011, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp. 696 - 701
Scanning electron microscopy backscattered-electron images of paint cross sections show the compositional contrast within the paint system. They not only give... 
lead soap | lead white | paint cross section | migration | electron microscopy | backscattered-electron image | degradation | oil painting | MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | MICROSCOPY
Journal Article
Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, 2002, Volume 201, Issue 1, pp. 75 - 84
Journal Article
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, 04/2019, Volume 58, Issue 17, pp. 5619 - 5622
Rembrandt (1606–1669) is renowned for his impasto technique, involving his use of lead white paint with outstanding rheological properties. This paint was... 
pigments | synchrotron x-ray diffraction | lead | impasto | Rembrandt | LEAD WHITE PIGMENTS | CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | INSIGHTS | Analysis | Diffraction | X-rays | Binding | Lead | X-ray diffraction | Lead compounds | Rheological properties
Journal Article
Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, 06/2018, Volume 90, Issue 11, pp. 6445 - 6452
At or below the surface of painted works of art, valuable information is present that provides insights into an object’s past, such as the artist’s technique... 
CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL | INSTRUMENTATION | FLUORESCENCE | OFFSET RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY | MASTERS PAINTINGS | LEAD WHITE PIGMENT | CULTURAL-HERITAGE ARTIFACTS | SUBSURFACE ANALYSIS | Usage | Parchment | Diffraction | Chemistry, Analytic | X-rays | Research | Quantitative | Methods
Journal Article
Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, 06/2005, Volume 130, Issue 6, pp. 898 - 906
Journal Article
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, ISSN 0197-1360, 01/2007, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp. 27 - 37
Fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy in the 270-1700 nm range was used to identify white pigments typically used in 20th-century paintings and as restoration... 
Spectroscopy | Infrared reflection | Anatase | Fiber optic cables | Pigments | Lead | Line spectra | Optical reflection | Spectral reflectance | Zinc | HUMANITIES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY
Journal Article
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, 10/2014, Volume 29, Issue 11, pp. 242 - 249
This paper describes the quantitative measurement of trace elements in TiO 2 powders using a modified solution-cathode glow discharge-atomic emission... 
FORMIC-ACID | CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL | COSMETIC APPLICATIONS | WHITE PIGMENT | COATED TIO2 | SPECTROSCOPY | ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS | AQUEOUS SAMPLES | SLURRY SAMPLE INTRODUCTION | OPTICAL-EMISSION | LIQUID-MEDIA | SULFATE PROCESS | Spectroscopy | Silver | Inductively coupled plasma | Emission analysis | Lithium | Trace elements | Titanium dioxide | Lead (metal)
Journal Article