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International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, 11/2013, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp. 638 - 650
Neutrophils play a critical role in the host defense against bacterial and fungal infections, but their inappropriate activation also contributes to tissue... 
Signaling | Receptors | Inflammation | Kinases | Neutrophils | ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE | COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR | LEUKOCYTE ADHESION DEFICIENCY | IMMUNOLOGY | SRC-FAMILY KINASES | HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES | HIGH-AFFINITY RECEPTOR | TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR | TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS | PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY | BETA-GAMMA-SUBUNITS | NF-KAPPA-B | Signal Transduction - immunology | Animals | Receptors, Cell Surface - immunology | Humans | Neutrophils - immunology | Selectins - immunology | Mycoses | Lectins | Fc receptors | Integrins | FcR, Fc-receptor | GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor | CLEC, C-type lectin | OSCAR, osteoclast-associated receptor | PKB, protein kinase B | DAG, diacyl-glycerol | Tyk2, tyrosine protein kinase 2 | VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 | ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 | FADD, Fas-associated protein with death domain | IκB, inhibitor of NF-κB | GM-CSF, granulocyte | MyD88, myeloid differentiation protein 88 | TNF, tumor necrosis factor | LTβ, lymphotoxin β | TRADD, TNFR1-associated death domain protein | Abl, Abelson leukemia proto-oncogene | SLP-76, SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa | CALDAG-GEFI, calcium and DAG-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor I | IL, interleukin | Src, Rous sarcoma virus proto-oncogene | IRF, IFN regulatory factor | RIG, retinoic acid-inducible gene | PLC, phospholipase C | TCR, T-cell receptor | IKK, IκB kinase | ITAM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif | CARD, caspase activation and recruitment domain | IP3, inositol-tris-phosphate | CHO, Chinese hamster ovary cells | MKK, MAP kinase kinase | fMLP, formly-Met-Leu-Phe | TRAF, TNF receptor-associated factor | MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein | Rac, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate | monocyte colony-stimulating factor | PIP3, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate | VLA-4, very late antigen 4 (α4β1 integrin) | PAF, platelet activating factor | STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription | TAK, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 | Mac-1, macrophage antigen 1 (αMβ2 integrin) | FcRγ, Fc-receptor γ-chain | Asc, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD | cIAP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis | BCR, B-cell receptor | Fgr, Gardner–Rasheed feline sarcoma proto-oncogene | VASP, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein | Hck, hematopoietic cell kinase | TGFβ, transforming growth factor β | Rap, Ras-related protein | SHP-1, SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 | Syk, spleen tyrosine kinase | GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor | G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor | TREM, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells | DISC, death-inducing signaling complex | MDL-1, myeloid DAP12-associating lectin 1 | C3G, Crk SH3 domain-binding guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RapGEF1) | NF-κB, nuclear factor κB | ERM, ezrin-radixin-moesin | Epac1, exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP 1 | LTB4, leukotriene B4 | Mcl, macrophage C-type lectin | SAP130, Sin3A-associated protein of 130 kDa | SH2, Src-homology 2 domain | MAP kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase | PSGL-1, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand | PI3K, phoshoinositide-3-kinase | ADAP, adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (Fyb, SLAP-130) | NLRP3, NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 | MDA5, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 | TLR, Toll-like receptor | GRK, GPCR kinase | LAD, leukocyte adhesion deficiency | MAPKAP-kinase, MAP kinase-associated protein kinase | ZAP-70, ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa | TRAIL, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand | JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase | LFA-1, lymphocyte function-associated receptor 1 (αLβ2 integrin) | ROS, reactive oxygen species | RIP3, receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinase 3 | DAP12, DNAX activating protein 12 | IFN, interferon | PIR, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor | PKC, protein kinase C | PAK, p21-activated kinase | ESL-1, E-selectin ligand 1 | GAP, GTPase activating protein | ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase | SOCS, suppressor of cytokine signaling | JAK, Janus kinase | RANK, receptor activator of NF-κB | IRAK, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase | NOD, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein | CEACAM3, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CD66b)
Journal Article
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, 11/2014, Volume 10, Issue 11, pp. 3270 - 3285
Research on innate immune signaling and regulation has recently focused on pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signaling pathways. Members of PRRs... 
IFI16, interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16 | IRF, interferon regulatory factor | CDNs, cyclic dinucleotides | AIM2, absent in melanoma 2 | LT, lethal toxin | MIB, mind bomb | ALRs, AIM2-like receptors | MDP, muramyl dipeptide | LUBAC, linear ubiquitin assembly complex | innate immunity | TRIF, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-b | DDX41, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 | IKK, IkB kinase | MyD88, myeloid differentiation factor 88 | TRAILR, tumor-necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor | AMPK, AMP activated protein kinase | LBP, LPS-binding protein | NEMO, NF-kB essential modulator | TRIMs, tripartite motif containing proteins | IKKi, inducible IkB kinase | PKC-d, protein kinase C delta | LRR, leucine-rich repeat | TAK1, TGF-b-activating kinase 1 | RIP, receptor-interacting protein | TBK1, TANK binding kinase 1 | TRIP, TRAF-interacting protein | TLRs, Toll-like receptors | LGP 2, laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 | PKR, dsRNA-dependent protein kinase | PRRs, pathogen recognition receptors | STING, stimulator of interferon gene | GBP5, guanylate-binding protein 5 | RLRs, RIG-I-like receptors | ULK1, autophagy related serine threonine UNC-51- like kinase | TIR, Toll IL-1 receptor | LPS, lipopolysaccharide | TRAF, TNFR-associated factor | Atg16L, autophagy related 16-like | cDC, conventional dendritic cell | MDA5, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 | DCs, dendritic cells | CARD, caspase recruitment domain | PRRs | KSHV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus | RAUL, RTA-associated E3 ligase | CLRs, C-type lectin receptors | pDC, plasmacytoid dendritic cell | MAVS, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein | inflammation | NAIPs, neuronal apoptosis inhibitory proteins | CYLD, the familial cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene | SIGIRR, single Ig IL-1-related receptor | ROS, reactive oxygen species | RIG-I, retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 | TANK, TRAF family-member-associated NF-kB activator | ASC, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD | DAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns | IFN, interferon | TRAM, TRIF-related adaptor molecule | TIRAP, TIR domain-containing adapter protein | iE-DAP, g-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid | PAMPs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns | cGAS, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase | cIAP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein | GSK3β, Glycogen synthase kinase 3β | NOD, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain | IRAK, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase | BMM, bone marrow-derived macrophage | type I interferon | RACK1, receptor for activated C kinase 1 | SARM, sterile a- and armadillo motif-containing protein | SOCS, suppressor of cytokine signaling | CMV, cytomegalovirus | cancer | NLRs, Nod- like receptors | Nrdp1, neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 | HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma | ER, endoplasmic reticulum | Innate immunity | Inflammation | Type I interferon | Cancer | linear ubiquitin assembly complex | C-type lectin receptors | IKKi | TRIP | TRAF | apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD | neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 | RIG-I | TRAM | CARD | TRIF-related adaptor molecule | dendritic cells | TBK1 | cytomegalovirus | cyclic dinucleotides | DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 | cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein | GSK3 | PAMPs | retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 | CDNs | hepatocellular carcinoma | TANK binding kinase 1 | RAUL | GBP5 | Toll IL-1 receptor | cDC | MIB | protein kinase C delta | iE-DAP | CMV | SARM | SIGIRR | IRAK | sterile a- and armadillo motif-containing protein | cyclic GMP-AMP synthase | TNFR-associated factor | autophagy related serine threonine UNC-51-like kinase | AMPK | ULK1 | lipopolysaccharide | TRIF | IRF | RLRs | Nrdp1 | receptor-interacting protein | LPS-binding protein | plasmacytoid dendritic cell | tripartite motif containing proteins | LPS | DAMPs | melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 | ASC | TAK1 | KSHV | LGP 2 | neuronal apoptosis inhibitory proteins | TRIMs | danger-associated molecular patterns | cGAS | T-CELL DEVELOPMENT | RIG-I-like receptors | lethal toxin | BMM | muramyl dipeptide | interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase | IKK | AMP activated protein kinase | absent in melanoma 2 | IkB kinase | CYLD | dsRNA-dependent protein kinase | MAVS | Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus | TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-b | STING | TIR | AIM2-like receptors | laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 | DDX41 | IMMUNOLOGY | LRR | MyD88 | nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain | CLRs | BIOTECHNOLOGY & APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY | myeloid differentiation factor 88 | MDP | RACK1 | LBP | TRAF-interacting protein | bone marrow-derived macrophage | NF-KAPPA-B | NOD-LIKE RECEPTOR | NOD | conventional dendritic cell | IFN-BETA PRODUCTION | HCC | TGF-b-activating kinase 1 | inducible IkB kinase | TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR CYLD | TIRAP | Atg16L | mind bomb | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | AIM2 | PKR | SINGLE-STRANDED RNA | TRAF family-member-associated NF-kB activator | ROS | interferon regulatory factor | g-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid | pathogen recognition receptors | NLRs | UBIQUITIN-DEPENDENT KINASE | NEMO | stimulator of interferon gene | RTA-associated E3 ligase | Nod- like receptors | CYTOSOLIC DNA SENSOR | the familial cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene | tumor-necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor | TANK | MDA5 | IFN | mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein | ALRs | IFI16 | DCs | TRAILR | reactive oxygen species | Toll-like receptors | cIAP | TIR domain-containing adapter protein | PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS | single Ig IL-1-related receptor | guanylate-binding protein 5 | suppressor of cytokine signaling | autophagy related 16-like | leucine-rich repeat | NF-kB essential modulator | Glycogen synthase kinase 3 | SOCS | interferon | LUBAC | caspase recruitment domain | pDC | NAIPs | receptor for activated C kinase 1 | PKC-d | RIP | gamma-inducible protein 16 | TLRs | endoplasmic reticulum | Immunity, Innate - immunology | Signal Transduction - immunology | Neoplasms - immunology | Humans | Inflammasomes - immunology | RNA Viruses - immunology | Toll-Like Receptors - immunology | Interferon Type I - immunology | DNA Viruses - immunology
Journal Article
Annual Review of Physiology, ISSN 0066-4278, 03/2009, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp. 413 - 435
Most studies of innate immunity have focused on leukocytes such as neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer cells. However, epithelial cells play key roles... 
Antimicrobial | Innate immunity | Pneumonia | Microbial killing | antimicrobial | PHYSIOLOGY | HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIA | TOLL-LIKE-RECEPTOR | CATHELICIDIN ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE | ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY | microbial killing | GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA | innate immunity | pneumonia | PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA | IMMUNE-RESPONSES | HOST-DEFENSE | COMPLEMENT ANAPHYLATOXIN C3A | PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS | Respiratory Mucosa - anatomy & histology | Pneumonia - therapy | Infection - therapy | Lung Diseases - diagnosis | Infection - immunology | Lung Diseases - microbiology | Humans | Infection - microbiology | Lung Diseases - therapy | Pneumonia - microbiology | Blood Bactericidal Activity | Lung Diseases - immunology | Respiratory Mucosa - microbiology | Animals | Immunity, Innate - physiology | Infection - diagnosis | Pneumonia - diagnosis | Respiratory Mucosa - immunology | Pneumonia - immunology | Cytokines | Lung diseases | Physiological aspects | Causes of | Anti-infective agents | Research | Leukocytes | Health aspects | Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi): an unencapsulated (hence non-typeable) strain of a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is frequently cultured from the lungs of patients with chronic respiratory disease | Interferon (IFN): a subset of cytokines that inhibit viral replication within host cells and activate leukocytes. There are three classes – Type I (α, β, ω, ε, and κ), Type II (γ), and Type III (λ1-3, also known as IL-28A | Interleukin (IL): a widely expressed and highly variable group of cytokine signaling molecules involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses | Innate immunity: host antimicrobial defenses involving detection of conserved molecular motifs by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors, and characterized by rapid but transient responses of both leukocytes and parenchymal cells | Leucine rich repeats (LRR): common molecular sequences of many pattern recognition receptors that generally occur within pathogen recognition domains | B and IL-29), each with distinct receptors | Transcytosis: mechanism of transport across polarized epithelial cells involving endocytois of extracellular macromolecules or particles on one surface, transcellular vesicle trafficking, and exocytosis on the other surface | Pattern recognition receptors (PRR): membrane-associated, cytosolic or secreted host products that recognize conserved molecular patterns on pathogens, initiating innate immune responses. These include Toll-like receptors (TLR), NOD-like receptors (NLR), RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), class A scavenger receptors (SR-A), and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) | Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE): a multifunctional member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that recognizes several host immunomodulatory proteins, including HMGB1 and S100, as well as host proteins without immunomodulatory activity that become glycated during aging or inflammation | Resistance: the strategy of host survival of infection that is associated with a reduction in pathogen burden; this is contrasted to tolerance, the strategy of generating a host phenotype indifferent to the pathogen burden | Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, the lipid A portion of which is recognized by TLR4 in association with MD2 and CD14 | Complement: a system of more than thirty proteins activated by three pathways that permeabilize pathogens with the membrane attack complex, opsonize microbes and release fragments with signaling properties such as the anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a | Hemolymph: fluid in the body cavity of insects, homologous to vertebrate blood, with most proteins produced by the fat body, homologous to the vertebrate liver, with functions in both metabolism and immunity | Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI): epithelium-derived protease inhibitor with intrinsic antibacterial activity | Transmigration: paracellular migration of leukocytes or pathogens through epithelial or endothelial barriers and associated basement membranes | Anoikis: apoptosis of epithelial cells induced by detachment from the extracellular matrix | Toll | Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP): stereotypic molecular motifs conserved across microbial species that are recognized by pattern recognition receptors, triggering innate immune responses | Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP): molecular motifs expressed on or released by infected or injured host cells, also known as danger signals or alarmins | Adaptive immunity: host antimicrobial defenses involving pathogen detection of specific antigens by somatically recombined receptors, and characterized by clonal expansion of pathogen-specific lymphocytes and immunologic memory | Interleukin-1 receptor adaptors (TIR adaptors): host peptides that are selectively recruited to Toll-like receptors and IL-1 receptor upon ligand binding and are required for signal propagation
Journal Article
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, The, ISSN 0091-6749, 2012, Volume 129, Issue 1, pp. 14 - 24
Interactions between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory pathogens have been shown to modify respiratory immune responses. Emerging data suggest... 
Allergy and Immunology | NOD-like receptor | airway | host defense | cigarette smoke | ozone | danger-associated molecular pattern | lung | particulate matter | nanoparticles | innate immunity | inflammasome | diesel exhaust | air pollutant | pathogen-associated molecular pattern | Toll-like receptor | pattern recognition receptor | DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES | PULMONARY INFLAMMATION | LUNG HYPERPERMEABILITY | IMMUNOLOGY | ALLERGY | PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS | HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS | NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME | NALP3 INFLAMMASOME | PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS | EPITHELIAL-CELLS | OZONE EXPOSURE | Receptors, Pattern Recognition - metabolism | Respiratory Tract Infections - metabolism | Animals | Inflammasomes - metabolism | Immunity, Innate - drug effects | Signal Transduction | Air Pollutants - pharmacology | Humans | Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins - metabolism | Respiratory Tract Infections - immunology | Air Pollution - adverse effects | Toll-Like Receptors - metabolism | Oligomers | Lung diseases, Obstructive | Dendritic cells | Genes | Nitric oxide | Heat shock proteins | Air pollution | Respiratory agents | Pollutants | Hyaluronic acid | Titanium dioxide | Smoking | Proteins | Studies | Nanoparticles | Cytokines | Disease | Lymphocytes | Accreditation | Immune system | Asthma | Streptococcus infections | Index Medicus | Abridged Index Medicus | Pathogens | Immune response | Immunology | Oligomerization | Reviews | Lung | Toll-like receptors | Data processing | Immunity | Allergies
Journal Article