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2009, ISBN 0821379712, xv, 225
Closing the Coverage Gap discusses how social pensions and other retirement income transfers can be used to close the coverage gap of mandatory pension... 
Old age pensions | Social security | Retirement income | Government policy | PENSION AGE | LABOR MARKETS | PENSION COVERAGE | INCOME GROUP | NATIONAL POPULATION | HEALTH ECONOMICS | SOCIAL PENSIONS | ECONOMIC ANALYSIS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | MINIMUM WAGE | POLICY ANALYSIS | SOCIAL RETURNS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | LOW INCOME | CASH TRANSFERS | POLICY FRAMEWORK | PUBLIC POLICY | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | MINIMUM PENSION | PENSION PLAN | PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT | ELDERLY POPULATION | COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS | SOCIAL PENSION | CONTRIBUTION | SAFETY NET | SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS | BASIC PENSION | OLDER WOMEN | TAKE-UP RATE | URBAN AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | OLDER PEOPLE | TAX RATE | POOR FAMILIES | CHILD CARE | MANDATORY CONTRIBUTION | ADMINISTRATIVE DATA | PENSION ACCOUNT | MINIMUM PENSIONS | VULNERABILITY | CLIMATE CHANGE | INCOME SECURITY | PUBLIC PENSIONS | RISK AVERSION | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | PENSION ISSUES | POLICY GUIDANCE | DISCOUNT RATES | RETIREMENT AGE | PUBLIC PENSION SCHEMES | SOCIAL POLICY | CREDITS | MARGINAL TAX RATES | PENSION REFORM PRIMER | PENSION WEALTH | PENSION SYSTEM | HEALTH INSURANCE | CONTRIBUTIONS | ELDERLY PERSONS | FAMILY STRUCTURES | POPULATION AGEING | POVERTY LEVELS | TRADITIONAL FAMILY | WORTH | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | CASH TRANSFER | LIVING STANDARDS | COMMODITY | OLD-AGE | SALARY | LONG-TERM SAVING | FAMILY ALLOWANCES | WITHDRAWAL RATE | DISABILITY | OLD-AGE PENSION | HUMAN RIGHTS | PENSION REFORM | COST ESTIMATES | RETIREMENT | LABOR MARKET TRANSITIONS | LOW-INCOME WORKERS | NATIONAL COMMITTEE | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | AVERAGE BENEFIT | LABOR MARKET | WORKING AGE | REPLACEMENT RATES | FINANCIAL PLANNER | LOW FERTILITY | BENEFICIARIES | DEVELOPMENT BANK | INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY | WAGES | LABOR SUPPLY | NATIONAL PENSION | PENSION PROGRAMS | RURAL AREAS | URBANIZATION | SOCIAL INSURANCE | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | GLOBAL POPULATION | INFORMATION SYSTEMS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | PENSIONS | CITIZEN | MIGRATION | PENSION SYSTEMS | ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT | SKILLED WORKERS | PUBLIC EXPENDITURES | PENSION REFORMS | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | POLICY RESEARCH | BASIC PENSIONS | SAVINGS | ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS | PRIVATE PENSION PROVIDERS | SOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT | PRIVATE PENSION | LOW-INCOME INDIVIDUALS | FERTILITY RATES | RATES OF RETURN | CONTINGENCIES | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | PENSION | CITIZENS | PRACTITIONERS | FAMILY POLICIES | INDIGENOUS PEOPLE | PENSION SCHEME | NATIONAL PLAN | MINORITY | PENSION PROVISIONS | LIMITED RESOURCES | CHRONIC POVERTY | QUALITY OF SERVICES | DISSEMINATION | NUTRITION | PROBABILITIES | PUBLIC ECONOMICS | ECONOMIC POLICIES | POVERTY RATES | PENSION ARRANGEMENTS | ORPHANS | INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION | INCOME LEVEL | MANDATES | BENEFIT FORMULAS | RETIREMENT INCOMES | RETIREMENT INCOME | EARLY RETIREMENT | PENSION TRANSFERS | POVERTY RATE | SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATIONS | IMPORTANT POLICY | BEST PRACTICES | PENSION RIGHTS | GENERAL POPULATION | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | MINISTRY OF EDUCATION | CURRENT PROGRAMS | POOR INDIVIDUALS | VOLUNTARY SAVINGS | INCOME LEVELS | PROBABILITY | FAMILY SUPPORT | LEGAL STATUS | MARKET ECONOMIES | SOURCES OF INCOME | RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFITS | PENSION REGULATION | WITHDRAWAL | SAFETY NETS | ECONOMIC COSTS | LOW-INCOME | SOUND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT | IMPACTS OF POPULATION | AVERAGE EARNINGS | PENSION INCOME | MATERNITY LEAVE | PENSION SCHEMES | SAVINGS INSTRUMENTS | SOCIAL EXPENDITURES | POPULATION GROUPS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | SENIOR | BABIES | PRIVATE INVESTMENTS | VALUATION | POVERTY REDUCTION | POLICY DEVELOPMENT | RETIRED | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | ASSET HOLDINGS | INTEREST RATE | CONTRIBUTION RATES | FINANCIAL SUPPORT | OLD AGE | SOCIAL WELFARE | KNOWLEDGE GAP | PUBLIC PENSION | FINANCIAL ASPECTS | NATURAL RESOURCES | INVESTMENT DECISION | CALCULATIONS | ADMINISTRATIVE CHARGES | LONG-TERM SAVINGS | FIXED COST | TRADE UNION | FINANCIAL POLICY | POLICY MAKERS | HUMAN RIGHT | SMALL ENTERPRISES | BUDGETING | OLDER MEN | SOCIAL AFFAIRS | DEFINED CONTRIBUTIONS
Book
De Economist, ISSN 0013-063X, 6/2014, Volume 162, Issue 2, pp. 115 - 145
We analyze the impact of an increase in the legal retirement age on the effective retirement age in the Netherlands. We do this by means of a dynamic... 
Economics general | D12 | Effective retirement age | Normal retirement age | Dynamic programming | Economics / Management Science | C61 | J26 | MODELS | SOCIAL-SECURITY | BEHAVIOR | EMPIRICAL TESTS | INSURANCE | ECONOMICS | HEALTH | NETHERLANDS | HOUSEHOLDS | Labor supply | Retirement age | Pensions | Analysis | Aging | Law | Life expectancy | Economic theory | Retirement
Journal Article
2008, World Bank working paper, ISBN 0821373692, Volume no. 129, v, 40
This study finds that pension reforms in recent years have improved the efficiency and sustainability of pension systems in the new member states of the... 
Pensions | European Union countries | Croatia | NET ASSET | ASSET ALLOCATION | FINANCIAL BENEFITS | PENSION AGE | ASSET ALLOCATIONS | PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS | INVESTMENT RISK | YOUNGER PEOPLE | RETIREMENT BENEFITS | SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS | OLDER WORKERS | MINIMUM CONTRIBUTION | MINIMUM WAGE | INFORMATION ON PENSION | WAGE GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | INDIVIDUAL SAVINGS | RETIREMENT ELIGIBILITY | CONTRIBUTION BASE | MINIMUM PENSION | EARNINGS | LIFETIME | EARNINGS INDEXATION | REPLACEMENT RATE | CONTRIBUTION | SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS | BASIC PENSION | BONDS | BENEFIT FORMULA | OLD-AGE PENSIONS | ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT | CONTRIBUTION RATE | VALUE OF MONEY | MORTALITY | PENSION PLANS | PUBLIC PENSIONS | FERTILITY | BENEFIT RATES | PENSION ENTITLEMENTS | FISCAL CONSOLIDATION | VALUABLE | INSURANCE COMPANY | CONTRIBUTION BASES | RETIREMENT AGE | PENSION COMPANIES | SOCIAL INSURANCE AGENCIES | INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO | INFLATION INDEXATION | PENSION SYSTEM | HEALTH INSURANCE | CONTRIBUTIONS | GROWTH RATE | PUBLIC FINANCE | POPULATION AGEING | SOCIAL CONTRIBUTION | ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS | INTERNATIONAL BANK | INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES | LIVING STANDARDS | GROWTH RATES | FINANCIAL MARKET | DEBT | PENSION FUND ASSETS | PENSION SAVINGS | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES | PENSION FUND | AVERAGE PENSION | SALARY | DISABILITY | OLD-AGE PENSION | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | DEFINED BENEFIT | RATE OF RETURN | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | CURRENT PENSIONERS | SECOND PENSION | GOVERNMENT BONDS | PORTFOLIO MANAGERS | RETIREMENT | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | AVERAGE BENEFIT | LABOR MARKET | WORKING AGE | RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH | REPLACEMENT RATES | DISABILITY INSURANCE | FUND ASSETS | INSURANCE SCHEME | ASSET VALUE | FINANCIAL SITUATION | WAGES | SOCIAL INSURANCE | PENSION EXPENDITURES | SOCIAL INSURANCE FUND | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | PRESENT VALUE | RATES OF RETURNS | PENSIONS | SHARE OF EARNINGS | DEPENDENCY RATIO | PENSION SYSTEMS | EARLY RETIREMENT PRIVILEGES | FUND MANAGERS | PENSION REFORMS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | PENSION PROVISION | BASIC PENSIONS | PRIVATE PENSION | AVERAGE BENEFITS | INFORMAL SECTOR | MINIMUM PERIOD | ACCRUAL RATES | FERTILITY RATES | RATES OF RETURN | PRIVATE SAVINGS | PENSION | WORKING AGE POPULATION | EARNINGS MEASURES | RETIREMENT PENSIONS | YEARS OF SERVICE | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE | BENEFIT LEVELS | TYPE OF WORK | PRIVATIZATION | DISABILITY PENSIONS | PENSION SCHEME | PRIVATE EQUITIES | TAXABLE INCOME | OLD-AGE PENSIONERS | INVESTMENT RATES | INFLATION RATE | CONSUMER | CONTRIBUTION PERIODS | AVERAGE WAGE | INCOME SOURCE | YOUNGER WORKERS | UNEMPLOYED | TRANSACTION | INCOME LEVEL | CAPITAL MARKET | BENEFIT FORMULAS | INCOME | EARLY RETIREMENT | RISK DIVERSIFICATION | ANNUITY | FUND PERFORMANCE | INCOMES | PUBLIC SYSTEM | SECURITIES | EMPLOYEE | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE CENTER | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | PENSION SYSTEM REFORMS | DOMESTIC ECONOMIES | INCOME LEVELS | PROBABILITY | PUBLIC FINANCES | SUPPLEMENTARY PENSION | DEPOSITS | ASSET MANAGEMENT | INFLATION | NATIONAL ECONOMY | GOVERNMENT SECURITIES | PENSION SPENDING | RETIREMENT AGES | WORKING PENSIONERS | WITHDRAWAL | POLITICAL RISK | PENSION EXPENDITURE | PENSION LAW | PENSION ENTITLEMENT | TAX | AVERAGE EARNINGS | OCCUPATIONAL PENSION | MARKET RISK | PENSION SCHEMES | PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | TRANSACTION COSTS | PENSION CONTRIBUTION | TRADE UNIONS | RETIRED | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS | SOCIAL SECURITY | INTEREST RATE | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT | HEALTH INSURANCE FUND | FINANCES | FUNDED ACCOUNT | PUBLIC PENSION | STATE PENSION | CURRENT PENSION | NATURAL RESOURCES | CALCULATIONS | PENSION SECURITY | MARKET PARTICIPANTS | PUBLIC DEBT | UNEMPLOYMENT | ADMINISTRATIVE CHARGES | BORROWING | EQUITIES | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT | DIVERSIFICATION | FOREIGN INVESTMENT | PENSIONABLE AGE | PRIVATE PENSION FUND | EARNINGS HISTORY | PENSION INSURANCE | BOOM GENERATION | AGING POPULATIONS | PRODUCTIVITY | DEBT SECURITIES
Book
Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, 2009, Volume 93, Issue 11, pp. 1224 - 1233
In response to a “crisis” in Social Security financing two decades ago Congress implemented an increase in the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) of 2 months per year... 
Retirement behavior | Social security reform | Normal retirement age | REFORMS | ECONOMICS | RETIREMENT | Normal retirement age Retirement behavior Social security reform | Retirement age | Social security | Labor market | Employment | Analysis
Journal Article
01/2009
The issue of the retirement age is fundamentally linked to policies on social protection. It is an issue that inevitably causes debate and has proponents, men... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | PENSION AGE | RETIREMENT PLANS | STATUS OF WOMEN | GENDER DIFFERENCES | FINANCIAL COSTS | PENSION | EXPENDITURE | LAW ON GENDER EQUALITY | PROFESSIONAL WOMEN | BENEFIT LEVELS | HOUSEHOLD WORK | POLICIES ON GENDER EQUALITY | DISABILITY PENSIONS | GENDER EQUITY | PENSION SCHEME | PROVIDENT FUND | FAMILY SIZE | FEMALE EMPLOYMENT | EMPOWERMENT | STATISTICS ON WOMEN | INTEREST RATES | SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT | EARNINGS | GENDER EQUALITY LAW | FEMALE | HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION | PREGNANCY | FEMALE LEADERS | REPLACEMENT RATE | GENDER GAP | DISABILITY PENSION | BASIC PENSION | OLDER WOMEN | URBAN AREAS | CONTRIBUTION PERIODS | RETIREMENT PERIODS | FEMALE LABOR | SEX | RECEIPTS | DISMISSALS | FEMALE WORKERS | LEGISLATION | PENSION PAYMENT | RESIDENCE | RETIREMENT INCOME | AGED | LABORERS | DISABILITIES | PENSIONER | RETIREMENT AGE | ENTREPRENEURS | MANDATORY SAVING | PENSION RIGHTS | SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEMS | PARENTS | PENSION SYSTEM | ELDERLY | AGEING | PROVIDENT FUNDS | EMPLOYER | CAREER DEVELOPMENT | GENDER BIAS | MARKET ECONOMIES | RETIREMENT PENSION | PENSION FORMULA | RETIREMENT AGES | HOUSEHOLDS | PENSION BENEFITS | UNION | DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN | PENSION ENTITLEMENT | GENDER INEQUITY | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT | PENSION SAVINGS | WOMAN | ECONOMIC RESOURCES | PENSION INCOME | PENSION FUND | DISCRIMINATION | EDUCATED WOMEN | FAMILIES | DISABILITY | OLD-AGE PENSION | ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE | LIFE EXPECTANCY | FINANCIAL COST | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | LABOR MOBILITY | ACCESS TO HEALTH | RETIREMENT | SAVINGS ACCOUNT | ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE FACILITIES | BANK MANAGEMENT | RETIREMENT PERIOD | CONTRIBUTION PERIOD | EMPLOYERS | LABOR MARKET | DISABLED | REPLACEMENT RATES | EXPLOITATION | MINIMUM WAGES | RETIREE | PENSION AT RETIREMENT | RETIREES | GENDER EQUALITY | SOCIAL PROTECTION | GENDER ASSESSMENT | MALES | RETIREMENT POLICIES | SOCIAL SECURITY | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS | PROPORTION OF WOMEN | SEXES | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | GENDER INEQUALITY | MINISTRY OF LABOUR | PENSION PROGRAMS | OLD AGE | JUDGE | SOCIAL INSURANCE | DEFINED-BENEFIT SCHEME | PENSION EXPENDITURES | SOCIAL INSURANCE FUND | FINANCES | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | EQUALITY OF MEN | PUBLIC PENSION | RETIREMENT POLICY | EQUAL RIGHTS | WOMEN EMPLOYEES | GENDER | AGE GROUPS | FINANCIAL VIABILITY | PENSIONS | LONG-TERM FORECAST | PENSION PAYMENTS | UNEMPLOYMENT | GROUPS OF PEOPLE | ADVOCACY ACTIVITIES | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | PENSION SYSTEMS | FEMALE DOCTORS | EARNING CAPACITY | RETIREMENTS | PENSIONABLE AGE | PENSIONERS | GENDER ACTION | PENSION AGES | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | HEALTH CARE | PRODUCTIVITY | UNSKILLED WOMEN | WILL | RETIREMENT OPTIONS | ADVOCACY | UNIONS | FINANCIAL CONCERNS | HOME
Book
Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, 08/2018, Volume 53, pp. 146 - 161
Many OECD countries are raising the normal retirement age (NRA), thereby, making early retirement more costly. Whereas such reforms incentivize individuals to... 
Involuntary job loss | Income inequality | Labor market frictions | Normal retirement age | Unemployment | Retirement | LIFE-CYCLE | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | SOCIAL-SECURITY | WORKERS | BEHAVIOR | STRUCTURAL MODEL | RETIREMENT-CONSUMPTION PUZZLE | RISE | GERMANY | ECONOMICS | EMPLOYMENT | Income distribution | Retirement age | Labor market | Analysis | Pensions | Equality
Journal Article
Acta Oeconomica, ISSN 0001-6373, 09/2017, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp. 359 - 387
A basic problem with the ever-changing Hungarian retirement rules has been that they created excessive shares of gainers and of losers. Certain workers with... 
Rights | Normal retirement age | Flexible (variable) retirement | Years of contributions | Early retirement | normal retirement age | ECONOMICS | early retirement | years of contributions | rights | flexible (variable) retirement
Journal Article
06/2012
This paper presents and explains cross country data for mandatory publicly and privately managed pension systems around the world. Relevant World Bank... 
PENSION AGE | LABOR MARKETS | NEWBORN | PENSION COVERAGE | GENDER DIFFERENCES | RETIREMENT BEHAVIOR | INCOME GROUP | WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS | GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION | COUNTRY OF ORIGIN | PENSION REGIMES | CHANGES IN FERTILITY | CITIZENSHIP | SOCIAL PENSIONS | SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFIT | MARKET CONDITIONS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | INTEREST RATES | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | ELDERLY POPULATION | SOCIAL PENSION | GENDER GAP | BASIC PENSION | OLD-AGE PENSIONS | AVERAGE WAGE GROWTH | CONTRIBUTION RATE | NATIONAL LEVEL | OLDER PEOPLE | ACCRUAL RATE | INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION | MORTALITY | PENSION PLANS | SEX | CENTER FOR HEALTH | PILLAR SYSTEMS | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | FERTILITY | POPULATION CENSUSES | SERVANTS | PUBLIC PILLAR | NUMBER OF DEATHS | RETIREMENT INCOME SCHEMES | RETIREMENT AGE | WORKING-AGE POPULATION | LIVE BIRTHS | MANDATORY SAVING | PUBLIC SCHEME | DEVELOPING ECONOMIES | PENSION WEALTH | PENSION SYSTEM | PENSION PROGRAM | GROWTH RATE | POPULATION AGEING | BANK LENDING | DEFINED BENEFIT SCHEME | DEFINED BENEFIT SCHEMES | CONTRACTUAL SAVINGS | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | CONTRIBUTION RECORDS | OLD-AGE | PENSION SAVINGS | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES | INSURANCE POLICIES | DISABILITY | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | INFANT | SOCIAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTION | DEFINED BENEFIT | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | CHILDBEARING | RETIREMENT | PENSION FUNDS | POPULATION CENSUS | CHILD REARING | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | PENSION DEBT | REPLACEMENT RATES | STATE GOVERNMENTS | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS | FINANCIAL ASSETS | LABOR SUPPLY | BENEFIT INDEXATION | NATIONAL PENSION | PENSION PROGRAMS | RURAL AREAS | SOCIAL INSURANCE | RURAL POPULATION | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | AGE DISTRIBUTION | PRESENT VALUE | PROGRESS | URBAN POPULATION | MANDATORY SCHEME | SOCIAL SECURITY REFORMS | PRIVATE PENSIONS | PENSION INDICATORS | PENSIONS | OCCUPATIONAL SCHEMES | MIGRATION | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | FERTILITY RATE | DEPENDENCY RATIO | PENSION SYSTEMS | DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PENSIONS | PENSIONERS | PAYROLL TAX | PENSION PROVISION | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | BASIC PENSIONS | NOMINAL WAGE | HEALTH CARE | PRIVATE PENSION | INFORMAL SECTOR | ACCRUAL RATES | ELDERLY PEOPLE | FERTILITY RATES | PENSION | CITIZENS | BENEFIT LEVELS | GROSS WAGES | FAMILY POLICIES | MORTGAGES | PENSION SCHEME | MIDDLE-INCOME ECONOMIES | PROVIDENT FUND | WORKFORCE | AGING POPULATION | MANDATORY SYSTEMS | SOCIAL PROGRAMS | PENSION POLICY | REFUGEES | NATIONALS | MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES | MULTIPILLAR PENSION SYSTEMS | BENEFIT FORMULAE | MANDATES | PUBLIC SERVICE | ADVANCED COUNTRIES | BENEFIT FORMULAS | SOCIAL SECURITY REFORM | RETIREMENT INCOME | RETIREMENT INCOME PROVISION | MIGRANTS | ANNUITY | DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS | EMPLOYEE | FUNDED BASIS | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | DEATH RATES | MANDATORY RETIREMENT | FINANCIAL CRISIS | MUTUAL FUNDS | PROVIDENT FUNDS | HIV | LEGAL STATUS | PENSION SPENDING | MARKET ECONOMIES | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | CHANGE IN POPULATION | RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFITS | POPULATION PROJECTIONS | PENSION EXPENDITURE | PENSION ENTITLEMENT | DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PENSION | INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS | PENSION LIABILITY | DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS | WOMAN | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM | PENSION SCHEMES | PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS | ECONOMIC TRANSITION | LIFE INSURANCE | UNFUNDED PENSION | ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE | LIFE EXPECTANCY | DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | BANK ACCOUNTS | FORMAL PENSION SYSTEM | POPULATION DATA | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | ASYLUM | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | INTEREST RATE | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | OLD AGE | PUBLIC PENSION | NUMBER OF CHILDREN | VOLUNTARY PENSIONS | PRICE INDEXATION | POPULATION FORECASTS | LONG-TERM CARE | PENSION LIABILITIES | UNEMPLOYMENT | RETIREMENT-INCOME PROVISION | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT | NUMBER OF PEOPLE | POPULATION DIVISION | NUMBER OF WORKERS | GROSS NATIONAL INCOME | PENSIONABLE AGE | TAX FINANCING | INFANT MORTALITY | FORMAL PENSION
Book
2012, ISBN 9780821388488, 342
Nonfinancial Defined Contribution (NDC) schemes are now in their teens. The new pension concept was born in the early 1990s, implemented from the mid-1990s in... 
Finance & Accounting | Defined contribution pension plans | Pensions | PENSION AGE | LABOR MARKETS | NEWBORN | PENSION COVERAGE | GENDER DIFFERENCES | RETIREMENT BEHAVIOR | INCOME GROUP | INVESTMENT RISK | WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS | GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION | COUNTRY OF ORIGIN | WAGE LEVELS | CHANGES IN FERTILITY | OLDER WORKERS | CITIZENSHIP | SOCIAL PENSIONS | PUBLIC DEFICIT | MARKET CONDITIONS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | CASH TRANSFERS | INTEREST RATES | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | PRIVATE SECTOR | ELDERLY POPULATION | INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT | REPLACEMENT RATE | GENDER GAP | BASIC PENSION | AVERAGE WAGE GROWTH | NATIONAL LEVEL | OLDER PEOPLE | ACCRUAL RATE | INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION | MORTALITY | PENSION PLANS | SEX | CENTER FOR HEALTH | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | FERTILITY | CONTINUED EMPLOYMENT | GOVERNMENT SPENDING | AGE GROUP | POPULATION CENSUSES | SERVANTS | NUMBER OF DEATHS | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | RETIREMENT AGE | LIVE BIRTHS | BENEFICIARY | MANDATORY SAVING | HUMAN RESOURCE | PUBLIC SCHEME | DEVELOPING ECONOMIES | PENSION WEALTH | PENSION SYSTEM | PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES | GROWTH RATE | PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS | PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS | POPULATION AGEING | OCCUPATION | BANK LENDING | DEFINED BENEFIT SCHEMES | CONTRACTUAL SAVINGS | CONTRIBUTION RECORDS | PENSION SAVINGS | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES | INSURANCE POLICIES | MARKET DATA | DISABILITY | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | INFANT | SOCIAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTION | DEFINED BENEFIT | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | CHILDBEARING | RETIREMENT | POPULATION CENSUS | CHILD REARING | SELF EMPLOYMENT | AGE CATEGORIES | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | WAGE LEVEL | LABOR MARKET | PENSION DEBT | REPLACEMENT RATES | PENSION FRAMEWORK | BENEFICIARIES | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS | LABOR SUPPLY | BENEFIT INDEXATION | NATIONAL PENSION | PENSION PROGRAMS | RURAL AREAS | CORESIDENCE | SOCIAL INSURANCE | PENSION EXPENDITURES | RURAL POPULATION | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | AGE DISTRIBUTION | PRESENT VALUE | PROGRESS | URBAN POPULATION | SOCIAL SECURITY REFORMS | PENSION INDICATORS | PENSIONS | MIGRATION | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | FERTILITY RATE | DEPENDENCY RATIO | PENSION SYSTEMS | DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PENSIONS | PENSIONERS | PAYROLL TAX | PENSION PROVISION | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | RESERVES | BASIC PENSIONS | PRIVATE PENSION | INFORMAL SECTOR | ACCRUAL RATES | FERTILITY RATES | PENSION | INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | CITIZENS | GROSS WAGES | RETIREMENT INVESTMENT | FAMILY POLICIES | WAGE BILL | MORTGAGES | PENSION SCHEME | PROVIDENT FUND | WORKFORCE | MANDATORY SYSTEMS | SOCIAL PROGRAMS | DIVISION OF LABOR | AVERAGE WAGE | PENSION POLICY | REFUGEES | UNEMPLOYED | MULTIPILLAR PENSION SYSTEMS | PERFORMANCE INDICATORS | EARNING | PREVIOUS SECTION | BENEFIT FORMULAE | INCOME LEVEL | MANDATES | PUBLIC SERVICE | ADVANCED COUNTRIES | BENEFIT FORMULAS | RETIREMENT INCOME | RETIREMENT INCOME PROVISION | MIGRANTS | EARLY RETIREMENT | ANNUITY | DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS | EMPLOYEE | FUNDED BASIS | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | DEATH RATES | FINANCIAL CRISIS | MUTUAL FUNDS | PROVIDENT FUNDS | INFORMAL LABOR MARKETS | LEGAL STATUS | PENSION SPENDING | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | CHANGE IN POPULATION | RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFITS | POPULATION PROJECTIONS | PENSION EXPENDITURE | PENSION ENTITLEMENT | PENSION LIABILITY | DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS | WORKER | WOMAN | PENSION INCOME | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM | PENSION SCHEMES | LIFE INSURANCE | UNFUNDED PENSION | LIFE EXPECTANCY | DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | MULTIPILLAR SYSTEMS | BANK ACCOUNTS | POPULATION DATA | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | ASYLUM | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | INTEREST RATE | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | OLD AGE | PUBLIC PENSION | NUMBER OF CHILDREN | VOLUNTARY PENSIONS | PRICE INDEXATION | POPULATION FORECASTS | PUBLIC DEBT | PENSION LIABILITIES | UNEMPLOYMENT | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT | NUMBER OF PEOPLE | POPULATION DIVISION | NUMBER OF WORKERS | GROSS NATIONAL INCOME | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | PENSIONABLE AGE | TAX FINANCING | INFANT MORTALITY | GROSS REPLACEMENT RATES | LABOUR
eBook
10/2012
This report was prepared by the World Bank at the request of the Government of Timor-Leste, and is used to assist the government with short-term budgeting and... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | MINIMUM PERIOD | PENSION AGE | FERTILITY RATES | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | WAGE INDEXING | PENSION | MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT | DISABILITY PENSIONS | LONG-TERM COST | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | PENSION SCHEME | WAGE GROWTH | BENEFIT PAYMENT | LOCAL CAPITAL MARKETS | REAL GROWTH RATE | PENSION PLAN | MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES | INDEXED CAREER AVERAGE | FEMALE | DECENTRALIZATION | LAWS | INFLATION RATE | DISABILITY PENSION | DISABILITY RETIREMENT | BENEFIT FORMULA | CONTRIBUTION RATE | CIVIL SERVICE PENSION | MORTALITY | SEX | FERTILITY | LEGISLATION | INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS | RETIREMENT PLANNING | OFFICIAL GAZETTE | DISABILITIES | PENSIONER | RETIREMENT AGE | BENEFICIARY | FINANCIAL STATEMENT | FUNDED BASIS | PAYOUT PERIOD | PENSION SYSTEM | ELDERLY | PENSION PROGRAM | MANDATORY RETIREMENT | GROWTH RATE | INFLATION | CIVIL SERVICE | RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFITS | PENSION LAW | GROWTH RATES | FEMALES | PENSION FUND ASSETS | PENSION FUND | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM | BENEFIT PAYMENTS | DISABILITY | CIVIL SERVANT | INFLATION RATES | FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | ACCOUNTING | LIFE EXPECTANCY | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | OUTPUT | RETIREMENT | PUBLIC SERVICES | VALUATION | INVESTMENT INCOME | CIVIL SERVANTS | DIVIDEND | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | FINANCIAL ANALYSIS | RETIREES | ECONOMIC BENEFITS | GOVERNMENT BORROWING | BENEFICIARIES | SOCIAL SECURITY | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS | PENSION BENEFIT | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | CONTRIBUTION RATES | NATIONAL PENSION | PENSION PROGRAMS | PENSION EXPENDITURES | DISABILITY RETIREMENTS | FINANCES | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | LEGAL ENVIRONMENT | LOCAL GOVERNMENT | GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES | PENSION PAYMENTS | BANK OFFICE | FERTILITY RATE | DEPENDENCY RATIO | NUMBER OF BENEFICIARIES | PENSION SYSTEMS | RETIREMENTS | PENSIONERS | CAPITAL MARKETS | BUDGETING | INDEXED CAREER | WILL
Book
02/2011, ISBN 1455216763, 70
Stress testing is a useful and increasingly popular, yet sometimes misunderstood, method of analyzing the resilience of financial systems to adverse events.... 
Pension Regulations | Defined Benefit Plans | Pension Supervision | Stress Tests | Pension Mathematics | Economic Models | Fsap
Book
03/2010
This report aims to provide additional insights to existing analyses of public pension and social security schemes in the Caribbean. Such analyses have been... 
PENSION AGE | REGULATORY SYSTEMS | LABOR MARKETS | PUBLIC SCHEMES | PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS | SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS | INVESTMENT STRATEGY | INVESTMENT RISK | WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS | RETIREMENT BENEFITS | CREDIBILITY | MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT | SOCIAL PENSIONS | SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFIT | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | MARKET ECONOMY | WAGE GROWTH | GOOD GOVERNANCE | INTEREST RATES | INCOME SMOOTHING | AGE SUPPORT | SOCIAL PENSION | FULL-CAREER WORKERS | REPLACEMENT RATE | TAX SYSTEM | POLICY RESPONSES | BASIC PENSION | FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE | CENTRAL BANK | AVERAGE WAGE GROWTH | CONTRIBUTION RATE | ACCRUAL RATE | ADVERSE EFFECTS | CIVIL SERVICE PENSION | REGULATORY STANDARDS | LIQUIDITY | RETIREMENT SYSTEMS | PUBLIC PENSIONS | CONVERSIONS | FERTILITY | PENSION ENTITLEMENTS | SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGIES | GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS | POVERTY ALLEVIATION | RETIREMENT AGE | BENEFIT ADJUSTMENTS | PENSION WEALTH | MANDATORY SCHEMES | PENSION SYSTEM | GROWTH RATE | DISBURSEMENTS | RISK MANAGEMENT | CODES OF CONDUCT | MINIMUM BENEFIT | STOCKS | GLOBALIZATION | GROWTH RATES | COMMODITY | FINANCIAL MARKET | PENSION FUND | BENEFIT PAYMENTS | GOVERNANCE STANDARDS | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | OUTPUT | RETIREMENT | CONTRIBUTION PERIOD | PENSION FUNDS | FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY | AVERAGE BENEFIT | LABOR MARKET | CONSUMPTION SMOOTHING | PENSION DEBT | REPLACEMENT RATES | SECURITY AGREEMENTS | INVESTMENT PERFORMANCE | RESERVE | LIQUIDATION | SECURITY AGREEMENT | DEFINED-BENEFIT SCHEMES | VOLATILITY | BENEFICIARIES | DEVELOPMENT BANK | INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY | FINANCIAL ASSETS | BENEFIT INDEXATION | DEFINED BENEFITS | INFORMATION DISCLOSURE | INSURANCE | PENSION PROGRAMS | INCOME GROUPS | MATURITY | DEFINED-BENEFIT SCHEME | PENSION EXPENDITURES | REVENUE SHORTFALLS | GUARANTEED BENEFIT | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | ECONOMIC CRISIS | LOAN | SOCIAL SECURITY REFORMS | PENSIONS | OCCUPATIONAL SCHEMES | CURRENCY | PENSION SYSTEMS | PENSIONERS | PAYROLL TAX | PENSION PROVISION | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | BASIC PENSIONS | SAVINGS | PRIVATE PENSION | FINANCIAL MARKETS DEVELOPMENT | BENEFIT LEVEL | EARNINGS REPLACEMENT | PRUDENTIAL REGULATION | ACCRUAL RATES | MARKET EFFICIENCY | FERTILITY RATES | REMITTANCES | RATES OF RETURN | CONTINGENT LIABILITY | CORRUPTION | PENSION | SINGLE MARKET | INVESTMENT RISKS | MARKET DISTORTIONS | BENEFIT LEVELS | DEBT BURDEN | PENSION SCHEME | DEFICITS | FINANCIAL DISTRESS | PENSION PROVISIONS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT | ECONOMIC DOWNTURN | DISABILITY PENSION | FINANCIAL SECTOR | CONTRIBUTION PERIODS | PENSION POLICY | FINANCIAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT | DEBT BURDENS | OLD-AGE INCOME | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | PENSION ARRANGEMENTS | PUBLIC SPENDING | INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS | RETIREMENT INCOME | RISK DIVERSIFICATION | ECONOMIC VOLATILITY | PENSION RESERVES | PENSIONER | PENSION RIGHTS | EMPLOYEE | INFORMAL ECONOMY | RETURNS | ELDERLY | MANDATORY RETIREMENT | FINANCIAL CRISIS | INCOME LEVELS | PROVIDENT FUNDS | INFLATION | PRICE GROWTH | RETIREMENT PENSION | RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFITS | INFORMATION SHARING | PENSION ENTITLEMENT | INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS | SAVINGS ACCOUNTS | IMPLICIT PENSION DEBT | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM | PENSION SCHEMES | PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS | GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE | LIFE EXPECTANCY | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | MINIMUM INCOME | FORMAL PENSION SYSTEM | PENSION INVESTMENTS | WAGE TAXES | WORKER CONTRIBUTIONS | RETIREE | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | ASSET PRICES | INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT | INVESTMENT POLICIES | GOVERNMENT PENSION | PUBLIC PENSION | TRANSPARENCY | ASSET VALUES | PENSION FUND MANAGERS | FULL-CAREER WORKER | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE | PUBLIC DEBT | COMMODITY EXPORTS | PENSION LIABILITIES | FINANCIAL WEAKNESSES | MONETARY FUND | DEBT LEVELS | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT | HARMONIZATION | PENSIONABLE AGE | PENSIONABLE EARNINGS | FORMAL PENSION | LEVEL OF RISK | MULTI-PILLAR SYSTEM
Book
01/2011
This report was prepared in response to a request by the Mongolian authorities for an evaluation of the Mongolian pension system and policy reform options. The... 
TAX BENEFIT | TRUST FUND | INEQUALITY | SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS | RETIREMENT BENEFITS | CREDIBILITY | SOCIAL PENSIONS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | TRANSITION ECONOMIES | MARKET ECONOMY | WAGE GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | CASH TRANSFERS | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | RESERVE FUND | FEMALE | PREGNANCY | SOCIAL PENSION | REPLACEMENT RATE | COMMODITY PRICE | PENSION POLICIES | FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY | BENEFIT FORMULA | OLD-AGE PENSIONS | AVERAGE WAGE GROWTH | CONTRIBUTION RATE | ACCRUAL RATE | TAX RATE | SOCIAL INSURANCE BENEFITS | RATE OF GROWTH | INCOME SECURITY | ACTUARIAL MODELING | FERTILITY | LEGISLATION | SAVINGS SCHEMES | RAPID GROWTH | POLITICAL RISKS | BANKRUPTCY | BENEFIT ADJUSTMENTS | PENSION SYSTEM | PENSION PROGRAM | CONSUMER PRICE INFLATION | PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT | DISBURSEMENTS | MINIMUM BENEFIT | DEFINED BENEFIT SCHEME | NOTIONAL ACCOUNTS | COMMODITY | DEBT | PENSION SAVINGS | PRISONERS | INCOME TAX | INSURANCE PENSION | CREDIT GROWTH | DISABILITY | OLD-AGE PENSION | SUPPLEMENTARY SCHEME | FUTURE OBLIGATIONS | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | FINANCIAL RISKS | SOCIAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTION | DOMESTIC FINANCIAL MARKETS | DEFINED BENEFIT | RATE OF RETURN | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE | FISCAL BURDEN | MARKET VOLATILITY | OUTPUT | REFORM PROGRAM | RETIREMENT | INTERNATIONAL MARKETS | AVERAGE BENEFIT | LABOR MARKET | PERSONAL PENSION | WORKER CONTRIBUTION | REPLACEMENT RATES | MACROECONOMIC POLICIES | PENSION AT RETIREMENT | RETIREMENT SAVINGS | DEVELOPMENT BANK | INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY | PENSION ADMINISTRATION | BENEFIT INDEXATION | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | NATIONAL PENSION | SOCIAL INSURANCE | DEFINED-BENEFIT SCHEME | GUARANTEED BENEFIT | SOCIAL INSURANCE FUND | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | FUNDED ACCOUNTS | EXPENDITURES | LIVING STANDARD | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | MANDATORY SCHEME | PENSIONS | EXPOSURE | COMPENSATION | DEPENDENCY RATIO | PENSION SYSTEMS | PENSIONERS | PENSION SYSTEM PARAMETERS | PENSION PROVISION | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | RESERVES | BENEFIT LEVEL | HOME | INSURANCE PRODUCTS | INFORMAL SECTOR | LEGAL FRAMEWORK | FERTILITY RATES | SOCIAL INSURANCE BENEFIT | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | PENSION | EXPENDITURE | INVESTMENT RISKS | PENSION INSURANCE FUND | BENEFIT LEVELS | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | DISABILITY PENSIONS | ASSET MANAGERS | PENSION SCHEME | DEFICITS | SUPERVISORY FRAMEWORK | PENSION PROVISIONS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | AGING POPULATION | INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT | SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEM | TAX TREATMENT | ANNUITY FACTORS | DISABILITY PENSION | ANNUITY FACTOR | OLD-AGE INCOME | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | PENSION ARRANGEMENTS | PENSION RESERVE | REGULATORY INFRASTRUCTURE | INCOME LEVEL | ECONOMIC CRISES | INCOME INEQUALITY | NATURAL RESOURCE | BENEFIT FORMULAS | PERSONAL INCOME | RETIREMENT INCOMES | RETIREMENT INCOME | SOCIAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE FUND | ANNUITY | ECONOMIC VOLATILITY | PENSION COSTS | PAYROLL TAXES | SECURITIES | SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEMS | EMPLOYEE | INFORMAL ECONOMY | ELDERLY | INVESTMENT RETURNS | FUTURE PENSION | SUPPLEMENTARY PENSION | HOUSEHOLD INCOMES | PRICE GROWTH | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | RETIREMENT AGES | ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY | PENSION BENEFITS | WITHDRAWAL | DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PENSION | FEMALES | TAX | INCOME TAXES | WOMAN | PENSION INCOME | RETIREMENT BENEFIT | VALUATIONS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | MINIMUM INCOME | NOTIONAL ACCOUNT | OUTPUTS | TRADE UNIONS | VOLUNTARY PENSION | RETIREE | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | INSTITUTIONAL REFORM | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | INTEREST RATE | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | PERSONAL TAX RATE | SOCIAL WELFARE | INVESTMENT POLICIES | FINANCES | NATURAL RESOURCES | TRANSPARENCY | VOLUNTARY PENSIONS | PRICE INDEXATION | TREASURY | GENDER | SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS | PORTFOLIO | PENSION LIABILITIES | GOVERNMENT SUBSIDY | MONETARY FUND | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT | PENSION INSURANCE SYSTEM | PENSION INSURANCE | CAPITAL MARKETS | INSTRUMENT | PENSION BENEFICIARIES | WILL | DEFINED CONTRIBUTIONS
Book
Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, 03/2014, Volume 30, pp. 579 - 608
Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on... 
pensions | retirement policy | aging | normal pension age | labor force participation rates
Journal Article
12/2008, World Bank Pension Reform Primer Series
The international financial crisis has severely affected the value of pension fund assets worldwide. The unfolding global recession will also impose pressures... 
WAGE | PUBLIC SCHEMES | ASSET ALLOCATIONS | ACCESS TO BANK LOANS | SALARIES | INVESTMENT RISK | PAY-AS-YOU-GO SYSTEMS | PENSION | SUPERVISION OF PENSION FUNDS | DEBT FINANCING | EXTERNAL DEBT | OPPORTUNITY COSTS | RETIREMENT BENEFITS | MARKET RISKS | OLDER WORKERS | SOCIAL PENSIONS | DISABILITY BENEFITS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | ACCESS TO BANK | GOVERNMENT DEBT | ANNUITIES | INDIVIDUAL SAVINGS | LOW INCOME | FINANCIAL MARKETS | VALUE OF PENSION | MINIMUM PENSION | EARNINGS | LIABILITY | PENSION MARKETS | DEFINED-BENEFIT PENSION | FINANCIAL SYSTEM | LIFETIME | RESERVE FUND | SOCIAL PENSION | FULL-CAREER WORKERS | BANK LOANS | CONTRIBUTION | SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEM | CALCULATION | ECONOMIC DOWNTURN | POLICY RESPONSES | BASIC PENSION | BONDS | FINANCIAL SECTOR | CONTRIBUTION RATE | RETIREMENT INCOME SYSTEMS | PAY-AS-YOU-GO PENSION SYSTEMS | ACCRUAL RATE | MANDATORY PENSION FUNDS | FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | MINIMUM PENSIONS | RETIREMENT SYSTEMS | ENTERPRISE FINANCING | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | MULTI-PILLAR PENSION SYSTEM | BENEFIT FORMULAS | RETIREMENT INCOMES | MULTI-PILLAR PENSION SYSTEMS | RETIREMENT INCOME | SOCIAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS | ANNUITY PURCHASE | BANKS | EARLY RETIREMENT | PENSION-SCHEME | ANNUITY | ECONOMIC VOLATILITY | FUNDED SCHEME | RETIREMENT AGE | CURRENT EXPENDITURES | PUBLIC PENSION SCHEMES | EMPLOYEE | PENSION REFORM PRIMER | PENSION WEALTH | FUNDED SCHEMES | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS | PENSION SYSTEM | CONTRIBUTION SCHEMES | ELDERLY | FUNDED SYSTEMS | RETIREMENT-INCOME | CONTRIBUTIONS | FINANCIAL CRISIS | INVESTMENT RETURNS | LOWER-INCOME WORKERS | GROWTH RATE | PUBLIC INFORMATION CAMPAIGN | RISK MANAGEMENT | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS | FINANCIAL SYSTEMS | PENSION BENEFITS | WITHDRAWAL | CASH FLOW | PRICE MOVEMENTS | PENSION LIABILITY | SAVINGS ACCOUNTS | LOW-INCOME | PORTFOLIOS | RECESSION | FINANCIAL MARKET | FINANCIAL VOLATILITY | DEBT | PENSION FUND ASSETS | AVERAGE EARNINGS | CLIENT COUNTRIES | PENSION FUND | RETIREMENT BENEFIT | AVERAGE PENSION | FISCAL DEFICITS | MACROECONOMIC RISKS | MARKET VALUATION | DISABILITY | GOVERNANCE STANDARDS | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | FINANCIAL RISKS | UNFUNDED PENSION | MARK-TO-MARKET | RATE OF RETURN | FINANCIAL FLOWS | LOAN MARKETS | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | MARKET VOLATILITY | RETIREMENT | PENSION FUNDS | MULTIPILLAR SYSTEMS | PAY AS YOU GO SYSTEM | LOW-INCOME WORKERS | VALUATION | FORMAL PENSION SYSTEM | LABOR MARKET | RETIREMENT SYSTEM | REPLACEMENT RATES | RESERVE | LIQUIDATION | PENSION FUND RETURNS | SUPPORT PROGRAM | RETIREES | RETIREMENT SAVINGS | LABOR FORCE | DIVERSIFIED PORTFOLIO | BANKING SYSTEM | FUND ASSETS | FINANCIAL SITUATION | FINANCIAL ASSETS | INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS | PENSION BENEFIT | CASH BALANCES | ANNUAL RETURN | CONTRIBUTION RATES | MATURITY | ASSET PRICES |