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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS, ISSN 0027-8424, 6/2014, Volume 111, Issue 22, pp. 8107 - 8112
The source, timing, and geographical origin of the 1918–1920 pandemic influenza A virus have remained tenaciously obscure for nearly a century, as have the reasons for its unusual severity among young adults... 
H1N1 subtype influenza A virus | Pandemics | Influenza A virus | Swine | Mortality | Childhood | Antibodies | Viruses | Immunity | Age groups | Pathogenicity | Cohort immunity | Phylogeny | Reassortment | Virulence | UNITED-STATES | MORTALITY | reassortment | ORIGINAL ANTIGENIC SIN | NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES | MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES | HUMAN SERA | PATTERNS | cohort immunity | pathogenicity | RESPONSES | DIFFERENT AGES | virulence | phylogeny | INFECTION | EPIDEMIOLOGY | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology | Reassortant Viruses - pathogenicity | Humans | Influenza A virus - genetics | Reassortant Viruses - genetics | Disease Resistance - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype - pathogenicity | Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype - immunology | Genetic Variation | Reassortant Viruses - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype - pathogenicity | Influenza A virus - pathogenicity | Influenza, Human - mortality | Adult | Influenza A virus - immunology | Influenza, Human - virology | Child | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - pathogenicity | Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 - mortality | Birds | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - pathogenicity | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - immunology | Biological Evolution | Animals | Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - pathogenicity | Aged | Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype - genetics | Causes of | Epidemics | United States | Swine influenza | Biological Sciences
Journal Article
The Journal of infectious diseases, ISSN 1537-6613, 2014, Volume 210, Issue 1, pp. 126 - 137
Background. We estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against both influenza A/subtypes and B/lineages in Canada for the 2011-2012 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV... 
Influenza vaccines | Viral vaccines | Influenza A virus | Comorbidity | Sentinel surveillance | Vaccine components | Specimens | Viruses | Inactivated vaccines | H3N2 subtype influenza A virus | Influenza A subtype | Influenza B lineage | Influenza | Vaccine effectiveness | Vaccines and immunisation | Trivalent influenza vaccine | influenza | INFECTIOUS DISEASES | NETWORK | vaccines and immunisation | VIRUS | CANADA | influenza A subtype | EFFICACY | trivalent influenza vaccine | PERSISTENCE | ANTIBODY | MICROBIOLOGY | sentinel surveillance | IMMUNOLOGY | vaccine effectiveness | influenza B lineage | SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM | PANDEMIC H1N1 VACCINE | Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage | Humans | Influenza A virus - genetics | Middle Aged | Child, Preschool | Molecular Sequence Data | Antigens, Viral - genetics | Infant | Male | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - immunology | Case-Control Studies | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - genetics | Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests | Young Adult | Influenza B virus - genetics | Vaccination - methods | Canada - epidemiology | Aged, 80 and over | Adult | Female | Influenza A virus - immunology | Influenza, Human - virology | Influenza B virus - immunology | Child | Influenza B virus - classification | Influenza B virus - isolation & purification | Influenza, Human - epidemiology | Treatment Outcome | Influenza A virus - isolation & purification | Sequence Analysis, DNA | Antigens, Viral - immunology | Influenza Vaccines - immunology | Adolescent | Aged | Influenza A virus - classification | Influenza, Human - prevention & control | Influenza, Human - immunology | Care and treatment | Analysis | Research | Health aspects | Sentinel health events
Journal Article
Influenza and other respiratory viruses, ISSN 1750-2640, 2007
Journal
PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 7, p. e0199260
The genotypes of the H9N2 avian influenza viruses have changed since 2013 when almost all H9N2 viruses circulating in chickens in China were genotype 57 (G57... 
A VIRUS | REPLICATION | EVOLUTION | HEMAGGLUTININ | SUBTYPES | PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS | MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES | POULTRY | CHICKENS | INFECTION | H7N9 | Influenza A Virus, H10N8 Subtype - genetics | Humans | Neuraminidase - genetics | Antigens, Viral - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - classification | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - genetics | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - immunology | Influenza in Birds - immunology | Phylogeny | Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype - classification | Influenza A Virus, H10N8 Subtype - classification | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype - immunology | Neuraminidase - immunology | Neuraminidase - chemistry | Influenza, Human - virology | Poultry Diseases - epidemiology | Influenza A Virus, H10N8 Subtype - immunology | Amino Acid Sequence | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - chemistry | Gene Expression | Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype - genetics | Antigens, Viral - chemistry | Influenza, Human - epidemiology | Glycosylation | Influenza in Birds - epidemiology | China - epidemiology | Poultry Diseases - virology | Polymorphism, Genetic | Antigens, Viral - immunology | Animals | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - immunology | Chickens | Influenza in Birds - virology | Poultry Diseases - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype - classification | Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype - genetics | Evolution, Molecular | Influenza, Human - immunology | Avian influenza viruses | Genotype | Genetic aspects | Research | Health aspects | Epidemics | Veterinary colleges | Divergence | Pandemics | Poultry | Genes | Branches | Amino acids | Viruses | Avian flu | Proteins | Antigenicity | Influenza | Airborne infection | HA protein | Genotypes | Binding sites
Journal Article
Nature (London), ISSN 1476-4687, 2012, Volume 484, Issue 7395, pp. 519 - 523
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic showed the speed with which a novel respiratory virus can spread and the ability of a generally mild infection to induce severe morbidity and mortality in a subset of the population... 
PATHOGENESIS | WEST NILE VIRUS | INFECTION | PROTEINS | MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES | Analysis | Mortality | Swine influenza | United Kingdom | Research | Morbidity | Membrane proteins | Pathology | Pandemics | Lymphocytes | Viruses | Genomes | Avian flu | Blood | Viral infections | Apoptosis
Journal Article
PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 12, pp. e8072 - e8072
Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome... 
A H5N1 | PATHOGENESIS | CELLS | SUPPRESSOR | INTERFERON | ACTIVATION | INHIBITION | MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES | CYTOKINE SIGNALING-1 | TRANSCRIPTION | KAPPA-B | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology | Reproducibility of Results | Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis | Monocytes - cytology | Humans | Cells, Cultured | Birds - virology | Up-Regulation - genetics | Gene Expression Profiling | Influenza in Birds - immunology | Interferon Type I - immunology | Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction | Down-Regulation - genetics | Host-Pathogen Interactions - immunology | Animals | Macrophages - virology | Host-Pathogen Interactions - genetics | Time Factors | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - immunology | Influenza in Birds - virology | Influenza, Human - virology | Seasons | Macrophages - immunology | Influenza, Human - immunology | Avian influenza | Acute respiratory distress syndrome | Genes | Swine influenza | Avian influenza viruses | Interferon | Biological response modifiers | Comparative analysis | Macrophages | Gene expression | Animal models | Pandemics | Pathogenesis | Viruses | Inflammatory response | Activation | Infections | Kinases | Avian flu | Pathways | Alveoli | Cytokines | Inflammation | Tumor necrosis factor-α | Epithelium | Biological activity | DNA microarrays | Respiratory distress syndrome | Lungs | Influenza | Apoptosis | Up-Regulation | Influenza in Birds | Down-Regulation | Birds | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype | Interferon Type I | Virology | Host-Pathogen Interactions | Life Sciences | Microbiology and Parasitology | Monocytes | Influenza, Human | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Journal Article
Trends in immunology, ISSN 1471-4906, 2009, Volume 30, Issue 12, pp. 574 - 584
Avian influenza A H5N1 remains unusual in its virulence for humans. Although infection of humans remains inefficient, many of those with H5N1 disease... 
Allergy and Immunology | BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS | CYTOKINE RESPONSES | DENDRITIC CELLS | I INTERFERON RESPONSE | LOWER RESPIRATORY-TRACT | ACUTE LUNG INJURY | PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES | IMMUNOLOGY | STRAND RNA VIRUSES | HONG-KONG | H1N1 VIRUS | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology | Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - metabolism | Influenza, Human - pathology | Orthomyxoviridae Infections - physiopathology | Humans | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - pathogenicity | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - pathogenicity | Influenza, Human - epidemiology | Immunity, Innate | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - immunology | Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult - immunology | Animals | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - immunology | Interferons - metabolism | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - pathogenicity | Mice | Influenza, Human - physiopathology | Orthomyxoviridae Infections - immunology | Influenza, Human - immunology | Avian influenza | Influenza viruses | Immune response | Health aspects | Analysis | Infections | Pandemics | Mutation | Respiratory distress syndrome | Genes | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype | Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult | Interferons | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype | Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha | Virology | Life Sciences | Microbiology and Parasitology | Influenza, Human | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype | Orthomyxoviridae Infections | influenza | cytokine | H5N1 | macrophage | pandemic | innate immune response
Journal Article
NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS, ISSN 2056-676X, 06/2018, Volume 4
Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease that, in humans, is caused by influenza A and influenza B viruses... 
DEPENDENT CELLULAR CYTOTOXICITY | A H1N1 VIRUS | MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL | LIVE POULTRY MARKETS | NEURAMINIDASE INHIBITORS | PANDEMIC INFLUENZA | H7N9 INFLUENZA | SEASONAL INFLUENZA | VIRUS NS1 PROTEIN | PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA | CD8(+) T-CELLS
Journal Article
Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 35, pp. 5911 - 5918
Abstract Despite existing vaccines and specific therapies, epidemics of seasonal influenza annually claim 200,000... 
Allergy and Immunology | VLP | Trivalent | Influenza vaccine | Influenza | Virus-like particles | UNITED-STATES | MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL | VACCINATION | IMMUNOLOGY | IN-VITRO | IMMUNE-RESPONSES | A VIRUSES | H5N1 VIRUSES | FERRETS | MICE | EXPRESSION | VACCINES | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology | Orthomyxoviridae Infections - prevention & control | Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage | Pandemics | Humans | Virion - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - genetics | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - genetics | Vaccines, Synthetic - immunology | Orthomyxoviridae - classification | Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype - immunology | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - genetics | Orthomyxoviridae - immunology | Spodoptera | Influenza B virus - genetics | Influenza, Human - virology | Influenza B virus - immunology | Seasons | Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - genetics | Virion - immunology | Vaccines, Synthetic - genetics | Cells, Cultured | Ferrets | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - immunology | Virion - metabolism | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - metabolism | Animals | Influenza Vaccines - immunology | Influenza Vaccines - genetics | Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - immunology | Orthomyxoviridae - genetics | Vaccines, Synthetic - administration & dosage | Influenza, Human - prevention & control | Orthomyxoviridae Infections - virology | Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype - genetics | Orthomyxoviridae Infections - immunology | Influenza, Human - immunology | Avian influenza viruses | Lectins | Epidemics | Global economy | Proteins | Genes | Viruses | Vaccines | Avian flu | Fever | Eggs
Journal Article
PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 3, p. e92153
Background: Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is generally interpreted in the context of vaccine match/mismatch to circulating strains with evolutionary drift in the latter invoked to explain reduced protection... 
CANADA | METAANALYSIS | EVOLUTION | HEMAGGLUTININ | EFFICACY | SUBSTITUTIONS | MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES | RECEPTOR | PANDEMIC H1N1 VACCINE | SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE NETWORK | CHILDREN | Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage | Humans | Middle Aged | Child, Preschool | Molecular Sequence Data | Infant | Male | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - immunology | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - genetics | Case-Control Studies | Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - genetics | Young Adult | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - isolation & purification | Aged, 80 and over | Adult | Female | Influenza, Human - virology | Seasons | Child | Infant, Newborn | Immunization | Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - immunology | Mutation - genetics | Canada | Influenza Vaccines - immunology | Influenza, Human - genetics | Adolescent | Protein Conformation | Aged | DNA, Viral - genetics | Influenza, Human - prevention & control | Influenza, Human - immunology | Influenza viruses | Influenza vaccines | Control | Genetic aspects | Influenza | Antigens | Antigenic drift | Amino acids | Viruses | Systematic review | Genetic diversity | Vaccines | Hemagglutination inhibition | Disease prevention | Antigenicity | Influenza A | Drift | Mutation | Strains (organisms) | Bore
Journal Article