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2014, Directions in development. Trade, ISBN 1464802645, xiii, 104 pages
This report analyzes the paths by which developing country labor markets adjust to permanent trade-related shocks. Trade shocks can bring about reallocation of... 
Business cycles | Labor market | Labor mobility | Developing countries | Developing countries Commerce | Commerce | Wages | INFORMAL SECTOR | JOB SEPARATION | LABOR MARKETS | WAGE EFFECTS | BUSINESS CYCLE | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | INDUSTRY WAGE | GDP | CAPITAL INVESTMENT | LABOR SHARE | AGGREGATE EMPLOYMENT | WAGE BILL | LABOR MARKET RIGIDITIES | EMPLOYMENT | ECONOMIC GROWTH | JOB DISPLACEMENT | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | LABOR ALLOCATIONS | DISPLACED WORKER | POLITICAL ECONOMY | WELL-FUNCTIONING LABOR MARKETS | AGRICULTURE | SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT | WORKERS | LAYOFFS | REAL WAGES | AGGREGATE PRODUCTIVITY | ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE | INTERNATIONAL TRADE | JOB SEARCH | TOTAL COSTS | PRODUCTION WORKERS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | AVERAGE WAGE | INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GAP | ON-THE-JOB TRAINING | LABOR ADJUSTMENT COSTS | SEARCH COSTS | SEVERANCE PAY | LAID-OFF WORKERS | SOCIAL CAPITAL | WAGE DATA | LABOR MARKET IMPACT | ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS | INCOME | INDUSTRY WAGES | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | ACTIVE LABOR | FIRM SIZE | TRADE POLICY | RETRAINING PROGRAMS | EMPLOYMENT SHARE | PROFITABILITY | LOCAL GOVERNMENTS | FORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | HOURS OF WORK | NEW ENTRANTS | PLANT CLOSURE | TRADE REFORMS | FINANCIAL CRISIS | LABOR ECONOMICS | TRADE LIBERALIZATION | EXOGENOUS SHOCK | FIRM ENTRY | JOBS | DISPLACED WORKERS | LEGAL STATUS | AGGREGATE GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | PRODUCTION FUNCTION | INTERNATIONAL MARKET | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | PURCHASING POWER | SAFETY NETS | ECONOMIC COSTS | FIRING COSTS | SERVICE SECTOR | SAFETY | EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM | WAGE INCREASE | WORKER | JOB CREATION | ANALYTICAL APPROACH | PASSIVE LABOR | LABOR MARKET CHARACTERISTICS | PREVIOUS WAGE | NOMINAL WAGES | PRODUCTIVITY GAINS | TRADE POLICIES | ECONOMIC STABILITY | LABOUR MARKET REGULATIONS | WAGE SUBSIDIES | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET | LABOR REGULATIONS | LABOR ADJUSTMENT | WORKING | GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION | LABOR MOBILITY | EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES | INTERNATIONAL MARKETS | WAGE LEVEL | PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES | LABOR MARKET | LABOR POLICIES | ECONOMIC RESEARCH | WORK EXPERIENCE | CREATIVE DESTRUCTION | SOCIAL SAFETY NETS | FIRM DYNAMICS | PREVIOUS STUDIES | DISCOUNTED VALUE | LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS | PLANT CLOSURES | LABOUR MARKET | CRISES | OPEN ECONOMY | LABOR FORCE | ADJUSTMENT COST | EXPECTED WAGES | JOB SECURITY | ECONOMIC COOPERATION | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | LABOR REALLOCATION | REAL WAGE | INSURANCE | MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS | AVERAGE WAGES | ENTRY COSTS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | LABOR COSTS | HUMAN CAPITAL | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | NET EMPLOYMENT | OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE | EMPLOYMENT INCREASES | REGRESSION ANALYSIS | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET POLICY | EQUILIBRIUM UNEMPLOYMENT | LABOR REGULATION | FACTOR DEMAND | UNEMPLOYMENT | MIGRATION | LABOR DEMAND | JOB TURNOVER | FINANCIAL CRISES | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS | WAGE DIFFERENTIAL | PLANT CLOSING | CAPITAL MARKETS | EXPORT MARKETS | GDP PER CAPITA | LABOR MARKET ADJUSTMENT | ADJUSTMENT POLICIES | DEREGULATION | EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS | MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS | LABOR ALLOCATION | OPTIMIZATION | ECONOMIC SHOCKS | LABOUR
Book
2008, Directions in development. Poverty, ISBN 0821375318, xiv, 139
Poor people derive most of their income from work -- however, there is insufficient understanding of the role of employment and earnings as a linkage between... 
Poverty | Labor productivity | Labor market | Wages | Madagascar | LABOR MARKETS | PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS | RURAL POVERTY RATE | URBAN POVERTY | EMPLOYMENT STATUS | NATIONAL POVERTY LINE | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | WORKING POOR | ECONOMIC GROWTH | URBAN DEVELOPMENT | EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES | PRIVATE SECTOR | EARNINGS | SOCIAL PROTECTION MECHANISMS | ACCESS TO EDUCATION | ELDERLY POPULATION | CONTRIBUTION | GENDER GAP | SAFETY NET | CALCULATION | AGRICULTURAL WORKERS | URBAN AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | IMPLICATIONS FOR POVERTY REDUCTION | RATE OF GROWTH | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | VULNERABILITY | AID EFFECTIVENESS | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INCIDENCE OF POVERTY | VALUABLE | AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT | EMPLOYMENT SHARE | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | WORKING-AGE POPULATION | FAMILY LABOR | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | POVERTY DATA | WORKING ADULTS | LOCAL CURRENCY | POPULATION GROWTH | HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION | DRIVERS | FORMAL EDUCATION | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | CONTRIBUTIONS | ADULT WORKERS | RURAL | JOBS | RURAL AREA | AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | PRIMARY EDUCATION | DEPRECIATION | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | CONSTANT PRICES | LIVING STANDARDS | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | INCREASE IN INCOME | PACE OF URBANIZATION | RURAL POVERTY | UNSKILLED LABOR | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION | JOB CREATION | POVERTY IMPACT | ADULT POPULATION | PREVIOUS LEVEL | JOBLESS GROWTH | POVERTY IMPACT OF GROWTH | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY | WORKING CHILDREN | POPULATION CENSUS | DOWNWARD BIAS | EQUAL ACCESS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | PRODUCTIVE SECTOR | PUBLIC INVESTMENTS | RURAL POVERTY RATES | HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES | JOB SECURITY | WAGES | POOR HOUSEHOLDS | ASSESSING LABOR MARKET | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | RURAL AREAS | LOW LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | RURAL INHABITANTS | URBANIZATION | LABOR COSTS | ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT | RURAL POPULATION | DAILY WAGE | PROGRESS | SECONDARY EDUCATION | URBAN POPULATION | LIVING STANDARD | NET EMPLOYMENT | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS | LABOR STANDARDS | PACE OF POPULATION GROWTH | SALARIED EMPLOYMENT | MIGRATION | DEPENDENCY RATIO | SKILLED WORKERS | WORKING POPULATION | RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE | SUBSISTENCE FARMERS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | DEVELOPMENT PLANS | SAVINGS | EMPLOYMENT RATES | INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION | INCOME GROWTH | POPULATION ESTIMATES | INFORMAL SECTOR | MARKET FAILURES | MIGRANT | WAGE | CHILD LABOR | LABOR MARKET FUNCTIONS | RURAL URBAN POVERTY | REMITTANCES | WAGE PREMIUM | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | POVERTY LEVEL | PENSION | PRIMARY SCHOOLING | EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE | LOW-INCOME COUNTRY | EMPLOYMENT | IMPACT ON POVERTY | WORKFORCE | WORKERS | DISSEMINATION | AGRICULTURAL SECTOR | CONSUMER | EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE | POPULATION GROWTH RATE | INCOME SOURCE | LOW EARNINGS | SALARIED WORKERS | UNEMPLOYED | RURAL HOUSEHOLDS | RURAL WORKERS | EARNING | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | INCOME PROFILE | EMPLOYMENT CREATION | LABORERS | PUBLIC WORKS | AGRICULTURAL GROWTH | ELDERLY | INCOME LEVELS | PROBABILITY | INFLATION | POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPER | LEGAL STATUS | LEVEL OF EDUCATION | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | LOW-INCOME | UNSKILLED WORKERS | WORKER | COMPARABILITY ISSUES | LEVELS OF EDUCATION | LABOR MARKET CHARACTERISTICS | POPULATION GROUPS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | LIVING CONDITIONS | DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | LARGE CITIES | CASH PAYMENTS | FOOD PROCESSING | POVERTY REDUCTION | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISE | POPULATION DATA | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | GENDER EQUALITY | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | NATIONAL POVERTY | SOCIAL SECURITY | UNEMPLOYED INDIVIDUALS | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | EMPLOYMENT RATE | RURAL POOR | URBAN CENTERS | PRODUCTIVITY DATA | LABOR ORGANIZATION | NUMBER OF CHILDREN | RURAL EMPLOYMENT | SECOND JOB | UNEMPLOYMENT | CURRENT PRICES | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS | NUMBER OF PEOPLE | NUMBER OF WORKERS | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | OPEN UNEMPLOYMENT | PERMANENT JOB | QUESTIONNAIRES | HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE
Book
09/2012
This paper examines labor market outcomes in Armenia and their impact on poverty. The outcomes are of considerable concern: relatively few persons of working... 
PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE | EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS | SKILL SHORTAGES | LABOR MARKET DYNAMICS | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | URBAN WORKERS | OLDER WORKERS | HOUSEHOLD WORK | SHORT-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT | YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | TRANSITION ECONOMIES | MARKET ECONOMY | WAGE GROWTH | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | WORKING POOR | ECONOMIC GROWTH | LAYOFF | PRIVATE SECTOR | UNIVERSITY DEGREE | PAYING JOBS | JOB INSECURITY | URBAN AREAS | INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | SEX | PRODUCTIVE INDUSTRIES | JOB OPPORTUNITIES | LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT | PERMANENT JOBS | REGULAR EMPLOYMENT | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY | ACCOUNTABILITY | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT OFFICE | INCIDENCE OF POVERTY | RURAL YOUTH | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | CHOICE OF OCCUPATION | FORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | FORMAL LABOR MARKET | TECHNICAL EDUCATION | PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS | FIRM ENTRY | JOBS | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | FINANCIAL SERVICES | YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT | SKILLS DEVELOPMENT | PRIMARY EDUCATION | ADB | PAID WORKER | ECONOMIC CONDITIONS | FIRING COSTS | UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM | SKILL REQUIREMENTS | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | RURAL POVERTY | EMPLOYEE BENEFITS | EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK | JOB CREATION | DISCRIMINATION | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | FAMILY MEMBERS | EDUCATED WORKFORCE | PRODUCTIVITY GAINS | QUALITY SERVICES | TEMPORARY JOBS | MARKET VALUE | SICK LEAVE | UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | PREVIOUS WORK | MARKET ENTRY | QUALITY OF EDUCATION | JOB SEARCH ASSISTANCE | QUALITY ASSURANCE | LABOR SUPPLY | RURAL AREAS | JOB PLACEMENT | LABOR MARKET PERFORMANCE | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT | PROGRESS | SECONDARY EDUCATION | UNIVERSITY GRADUATES | PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS | WAGE INEQUALITY | EXPECTED WAGE | WAGE DIFFERENTIAL | SKILLED WORKERS | WAGE DISPERSION | YOUNG WORKERS | SERVICE SECTORS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | YOUNG PEOPLE | YOUTH EMPLOYMENT | HEALTH CARE | INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION | TAX ADMINISTRATION | INFORMAL SECTOR | MODERNIZATION | TERTIARY EDUCATION | WAGE PREMIUM | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | POLICY IMPLICATIONS | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS | INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | LABOR MARKET ISSUES | EMPLOYABILITY | FEMALE EMPLOYMENT | JOB PLACEMENT SERVICES | WORKERS | REAL WAGES | LABOR MARKET NEEDS | WAGE STRUCTURE | PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SERVICES | JOB SEARCH | JOB COUNSELING | PUBLIC SECTOR WORKER | AVERAGE WAGE | PRODUCT MARKET | WAGE GAP | UNEMPLOYED | ANNUAL LEAVE | NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS | EMPLOYMENT OFFICES | RURAL WORKERS | EARNING | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | VOCATIONAL TRAINING | EMPLOYMENT PROMOTION | EDUCATION SECTOR | FIRM GROWTH | QUALITY EDUCATION | PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT | YOUNG WOMEN | INCOME | INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING | WORKFORCE SKILLS | WAGE DETERMINATION | EMPLOYEE | JOB LOSS | TOTAL UNEMPLOYMENT | LOW EMPLOYMENT | SOCIAL SERVICES | DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN | NUMBER OF PERSONS | CAPACITY BUILDING | WORKER | GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS | RESPECT | UNEMPLOYED PERSON | LABOR RESOURCES | UNIVERSITY EDUCATION | PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS | ACCOUNTING | EDUCATIONAL LEVELS | LIVING CONDITIONS | HOUSEHOLD EARNING | LABOR REGULATIONS | LABOR MOBILITY | PUBLIC SERVICES | EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES | SKILLED WORKFORCE | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | TRADE UNIONS | EARNINGS REGRESSIONS | LABOUR MARKET | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | EMPLOYMENT RATE | REAL WAGE | INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION | LABOR COST | PAID WORKERS | PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT | SOCIAL WELFARE | HIGH WAGES | HUMAN CAPITAL | TRANSPORT | LABOR ORGANIZATION | ACCESS TO INFORMATION | TECHNICAL SKILLS | EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM | UNEMPLOYMENT | HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY | JOB VACANCIES | FORMAL SECTOR WAGE | LABOR DEMAND | NUMBER OF PEOPLE | OPEN UNEMPLOYMENT | HIGH WAGE | INDIVIDUAL WELFARE | PRIME AGE | SPOUSES | LABOUR | SKILL LEVEL
Book
12/2010
In the last 25 years, Cape Verde has made impressive progress in their historical transition from a centrally planned to market economy. Building the... 
PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE | BASE YEAR | WAGE LEVELS | OLDER WORKERS | JOB DESTRUCTION RATE | ECONOMIC OUTCOMES | PRIVATE SECTOR WORKER | MINIMUM WAGE | MARKET ECONOMY | SKILLED LABOR | WAGE GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ECONOMETRIC MODELS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | PRIVATE SECTOR WAGES | BASIC EDUCATION | PRIVATE SECTOR | WAGE RATE | OLDER AGE GROUPS | FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES | URBAN AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | LABOR MARKET RIGIDITY | UNEMPLOYED PERSONS | MARRIED MEN | RATE OF GROWTH | LABOR LAW | VULNERABILITY | JOB OPPORTUNITIES | LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT | JOB MARKET | PRIVATE SECTORS | AGE GROUP | DEVALUATION | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | LABOR MARKET FLEXIBILITY | POPULATION GROWTH | UNEMPLOYED WORKERS | NATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT | FORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | WORKERS EXPERIENCE | FORMAL LABOR MARKET | MIGRANT WORKERS | PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS | FIRM ENTRY | JOBS | REGIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | COLLEGE EDUCATION | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | ECONOMIC CONDITIONS | JOB OFFERS | WAGE FLOOR | LABOR COMPENSATION | PUBLIC SECTOR JOB | STATISTICAL ANALYSIS | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | DEPENDANTS | JOB CREATION | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | JOB DESTRUCTION | FAMILY MEMBERS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | PREVIOUS WORK | ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE | LABOR MOVEMENT | LACK OF KNOWLEDGE | VALUE ADDED | SPOUSE | MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES | JOB SECURITY | ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES | LABOR SUPPLY | REAL GDP | AVERAGE WAGES | ILLNESS | RURAL AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | LABOR MARKET PERFORMANCE | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | PROGRESS | SECONDARY EDUCATION | URBAN POPULATION | NET EMPLOYMENT | PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS | PENSIONS | MIGRATION | FIRM LEVEL | UNEMPLOYED WORKER | SKILLED WORKERS | INDEXATION | GDP PER CAPITA | WORKER PRODUCTIVITY | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | YOUNG PEOPLE | HEALTH CARE | INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION | COMPETITIVENESS | INFORMAL SECTOR | MIGRANT | EMPLOYMENT INCREASE | CREATING JOBS | REMITTANCES | WAGE PREMIUM | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | CITIZENS | INCOME SUPPORT | GDP | LABOR MARKET RIGIDITIES | EMPLOYMENT | AGRICULTURE | WORKERS | REAL WAGES | INTERNATIONAL TRADE | TOTAL WORKERS | BENCHMARK | PUBLIC SECTOR WORKER | POLITICAL SUPPORT | POPULATION GROWTH RATE | AVERAGE WAGE | YOUNGER WORKERS | FOOD SECURITY | UNEMPLOYED | NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS | LABOR CONTRACT | EARNING | INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT | AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY | RIGID LABOR MARKETS | MIGRANTS | EMPLOYMENT CREATION | ECONOMIC THEORY | IMPORTANT POLICY | REAL INCOME | WAGE DETERMINATION | EMPLOYEE | PERSISTENT DISPARITIES | FINANCIAL CRISIS | WAGE RATES | NATIONAL ECONOMY | FAMILY SUPPORT | LEVEL OF EDUCATION | PRIVATE FIRMS | EMPLOYMENT TRENDS | PRIVATE SECTOR FIRMS | NET JOB CREATION | UNSKILLED WORKERS | WORKER | WORKER HETEROGENEITY | PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS | RESPECT | IMMIGRATION | ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATE | GINI COEFFICIENT | LABOR REGULATIONS | PERSISTENT UNEMPLOYMENT | PRESENTED EVIDENCE | LABOR MOBILITY | PERFECT COMPETITION | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | LOCAL LABOR MARKET | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | REAL WAGE | RETENTION RATES | BARGAINING | HIGH WAGES | HUMAN CAPITAL | ELASTICITY | PRODUCTIVITY DATA | BARGAINING POWER | LABOR ORGANIZATION | RURAL EMPLOYMENT | EARNINGS ABILITY | NATURAL RESOURCES | REGRESSION ANALYSIS | AGE GROUPS | SEVERANCE PAYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT | ENTRY RATE | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | LABOR DEMAND | NUMBER OF WORKERS | INFORMAL ECONOMIES | LABOR CODE | FUTURE STUDIES | HIGH WAGE | PRIVATE SECTOR JOB | REMITTANCE | ECONOMIC INTEGRATION | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATES | NATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
Book
World Bank Economic Review, ISSN 0258-6770, 1/2005, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp. 449 - 472
Part of the rationale for the North American Free Trade Agreement was that it would increase trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, creating jobs and... 
Latin American literature | Trade | Cost of living | World Bank | Labor migration | Labor markets | Transportation costs | Unemployment | Human migration | Financial investments | MIGRANT | WAGE EFFECT | CREATING JOBS | LABOR MARKETS | FISCAL POLICY | HOSPITAL BEDS | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | OPPORTUNITY COSTS | GDP | ECONOMIC ANALYSIS | NURSES | POLICY ANALYSIS | WAGE GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | POLITICAL ECONOMY | CENSUS OF POPULATION | SUBSTITUTION EFFECT | HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE | UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS | WAGE RATE | PURCHASING POWER PARITY | UTILITY THEORY | HUMAN RESOURCES | MIGRATION DATA | INTERNATIONAL TRADE | JOB SEARCH | CENTRAL BANK | FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES | URBAN AREAS | MORTALITY | LIQUIDITY | UNEMPLOYED | YOUNG MEN | EARNING | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | LABOR MARKET IMPACT | INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE | LABOR MIGRATION | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | LABOR STATISTICS | MIGRANTS | ARBITRAGE | IMMIGRATION REFORM | INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION | TRADE FLOWS | TRANSPORTATION | SECONDARY SCHOOLS | URBAN EMPLOYMENT SURVEY | TRADE LIBERALIZATION | UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRATION | PER CAPITA INCOME | UTILITY FUNCTION | INNOVATIONS | PURCHASING POWER | UNSKILLED WORKERS | WORKER | EXCESS SUPPLY | RESPECT | IMMIGRATION | MIGRATION FLOWS | LABOR MARKET VARIABLES | NOMINAL WAGES | RENTS | EQUILIBRIUM WAGES | INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW | RETIREMENT | ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION | SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS | WAGE LEVEL | CULTURAL CHANGE | LABOR MARKET | ECONOMIC RESEARCH | FREE TRADE | FUTURE GROWTH | HOSPITAL | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | LOCAL LABOR MARKET | PREVIOUS STUDIES | VALUE ADDED | SPOUSE | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | EXPECTED WAGES | WAGES | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION | INTERNAL MIGRATION | LABOR SUPPLY | REAL WAGE | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | LDCS | WEALTH | ELASTICITY | EXTERNALITIES | TRANSPORT | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | BULLETIN | HOUSING | SPILLOVER | EXPORTS | IMPERFECT COMPETITION | QUALITY OF LIFE | COST OF LIVING | UNEMPLOYMENT | STATE UNIVERSITY | MIGRATION | MUNICIPALITIES | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | SKILLED WORKERS | ECONOMETRICS | ECONOMICS OF IMMIGRATION | GDP PER CAPITA | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | INCREASING RETURNS | LABOUR FORCE | ECONOMIC INTEGRATION | POLICY RESEARCH | SAVINGS | LABOUR | UNITED-STATES | BUSINESS, FINANCE | US MIGRATION | POLICY | BORDER | SEARCH | MARKETS | ECONOMICS | PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT
Journal Article
World Bank Economic Review, ISSN 0258-6770, 1/2005, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp. 425 - 448
This article analyzes three criteria for labor market integration between Mexico and the United States before and since the North American Free Trade... 
Economic trends | Trade | Relative wages | World Bank | Employment | International borders | Labor markets | Cities | Wages | Proxy reporting | LABOR MARKETS | MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM | GLOBALIZATION | LIVING STANDARDS | ECONOMIC HISTORY | WORKER | DEBT | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | BASE YEAR | PRICE INDICES | GDP | RETAIL TRADE | INTERMEDIATE GOODS | ECONOMIC RISK | PRICE CHANGES | EQUILIBRIUM WAGES | LABOR ADJUSTMENT | POLITICAL ECONOMY | DEBT CRISIS | LABOR MOBILITY | REAL WAGES | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODELS | CONSUMER PRICE | FACTOR PRICE | LABOR MARKET | ECONOMIC RESEARCH | FREE TRADE | ESTIMATED PARAMETERS | COMMODITY PRICE | DEMAND CURVE | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | LABOUR MARKET | AVERAGE WAGE | LABOR FORCE | WAGE EQUALIZATION | WAGE GAP | LABOR ADJUSTMENT COSTS | WAGES | LABOR SUPPLY | ADVERSE EFFECT | REAL WAGE | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | AVERAGE WAGES | NAFTA | PREVIOUS SECTION | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | WAGE DATA | INCOME INEQUALITY | ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS | AGE GROUP | INCOME | LABOR MIGRATION | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | EXCHANGE RATES | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | EXPORTS | AGE GROUPS | WAGE INEQUALITY | RETAIL | COMMERCE | LABOR DEMAND | POSITIVE EFFECTS | WAGE DIFFERENTIAL | SKILLED WORKERS | MARKET INTEGRATION | CAPITAL FLOWS | LABOR ECONOMICS | ECONOMETRICS | GROWTH RATE | GDP PER CAPITA | TRADE LIBERALIZATION | ECONOMIC INTEGRATION | JOBS | INFLATION | LABOR MARKET ADJUSTMENT | PRODUCTIVITY | ECONOMICS | LABOUR | TRADE | ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION | INEQUALITY | RELATIVE WAGES | FACTOR-PRICE CONVERGENCE | SHOCKS | PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT | BUSINESS, FINANCE | BORDER | ENFORCEMENT
Journal Article
01/1986, ISBN 9781463989408
Book
2014
Human development is one of the pillars of Botswana's Country Partnership Strategy with the World Bank (2009-13). The Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) is in... 
GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS REPORT | PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE | LABOR MARKETS | SKILL SHORTAGES | TERTIARY EDUCATION | EDUCATION SYSTEM | PRIVATE TRAINING PROVIDERS | RATES OF RETURN | WAGE PREMIUM | OLDER WORKERS | RETAIL TRADE | TRAINING PROVIDER | EMPLOYABILITY | SKILLS REQUIREMENTS | CLERKS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | TRAINING PROGRAM | EMPLOYMENT | SKILLED LABOR | WAGE GROWTH | DIPLOMAS | ETHICS | EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS | JOB PLACEMENT SERVICES | MOBILITY | WORKERS | BASIC EDUCATION | PRIVATE SECTOR | HIGHER LEVELS OF EDUCATION | EARLY CHILDHOOD | LABOR LAWS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | AVERAGE UNEMPLOYMENT | VOCATIONAL EDUCATION | PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP | ON-THE-JOB TRAINING | CURRICULA | UNEMPLOYED | TECHNICAL TRAINING | COMPLETION RATES | BASIC KNOWLEDGE | VOCATIONAL TRAINING | WAGE PREMIUMS | FIRM GROWTH | QUALITY EDUCATION | STUDENT PLACEMENT | AGE GROUP | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | ACTIVE LABOR | FIRM SIZE | LITERACY | PAPERS | NUMERACY | HUMAN RESOURCE | LEARNING | TRAINING INSTITUTIONS | JUNIOR CERTIFICATE | EMPLOYEE | SKILLED OCCUPATIONS | TRAINING PROGRAMS | PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS | FORMAL LABOR MARKET | UNEMPLOYMENT LEVEL | EMPLOYMENT SERVICES | TECHNICAL EDUCATION | OCCUPATIONS | SCHOOL CHILDREN | CLERICAL WORKERS | JOB EXPERIENCE | JOBS | CONTINUOUS LEARNING | PROBLEM SOLVING | INNOVATIVE APPROACHES | JOB TENURE | OCCUPATION | LEVEL OF EDUCATION | GENERAL SECONDARY EDUCATION | PRIVATE FIRMS | SKILLS DEVELOPMENT | PRIMARY EDUCATION | HIGHER EDUCATION | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS | EDUCATION LEVEL | WORKER | INTERNSHIPS | COMPLETION RATE | INTERVENTIONS | PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVELS | RATES OF RETURN TO EDUCATION | ENROLLMENT RATE | WAGE GAIN | VOCATIONAL SKILLS | EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS | EDUCATIONAL LEVELS | LOWER SECONDARY EDUCATION | ACTIVE LABOR MARKET | LABOR REGULATIONS | PRIVATE TRAINING | ELEMENTARY SCHOOL | SKILLED WORKER | SOCIAL SKILLS | UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION | LABOR MARKET | SKILLED WORKFORCE | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | PREVIOUS WORK | RETURNS TO EDUCATION | WORK EXPERIENCE | BASIC LITERACY | YOUTH | EMPLOYMENT POLICY | FOREIGN WORKERS | PRIMARY SCHOOL | LABOR FORCE | QUALITY OF EDUCATION | SCHOOL LEVELS | UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | GENERAL EDUCATION | SKILLS TRAINING | HIGH WAGE PREMIUM | JOB PLACEMENT | APTITUDES | HUMAN CAPITAL | MATHEMATICS | PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS | ENROLLMENT | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | SECONDARY EDUCATION | YOUTH TRAINING | TRAINING COURSES | UNEMPLOYMENT | EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS | JOB VACANCIES | TRAINING INSTITUTES | YOUTH TRAINING PROGRAMS | SKILLED WORKERS | YOUNG WORKERS | STUDENT LEARNING | HIGH WAGE | COMPUTER SKILLS | YOUTH EMPLOYMENT | EDUCATION CYCLE | LABOUR
Book
11/2005
This report carries out a detailed evaluation of the 2002 labor reform in Colombia, and in doing so, it also assesses the performance of the Colombian urban... 
LABOR MARKETS | LABOR LEGISLATION | BUSINESS CYCLE | EXPENDITURE | MARKET DISTORTIONS | MONETARY POLICY | WAGE LEVELS | GDP | MINIMUM WAGE | EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GROWTH | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS | WORKERS | SERVICES MARKETS | REAL WAGES | DECENTRALIZATION | CENTRAL BANK | FINANCIAL SECTOR | AVERAGE WAGE | LABOR MARKET INTERVENTIONS | PRODUCTION SIDE | EMPLOYMENT LEVEL | SALARIED WORKERS | EQUATIONS | EARNING | PREVIOUS SECTION | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | CAPITAL MARKET | MARKET EQUILIBRIUM | PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT CREATION | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | PAYROLL TAXES | WORLD MARKETS | COMMERCE | UNEMPLOYMENT LEVEL | GROWTH RATE | OCCUPATIONS | JOBS | INFLATION | OCCUPATION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | SAFETY NETS | RECESSION | UNEMPLOYMENT DECLINES | WAGE INCREASE | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | WORKER | INFLATION RATES | PARTICIPATION | EDUCATIONAL LEVELS | LABOR REGULATIONS | JOB SEEKERS | PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT LEVELS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | MINIMUM WAGES | ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT | LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS | PRIMARY SCHOOL | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | LABOR SUPPLY | REAL GDP | LABOR FORCE GROWTH | REAL WAGE | AVERAGE WAGES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | LABOR COSTS | HUMAN CAPITAL | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | NON-WAGE COSTS | EXPENDITURES | SALARIED EMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT | WAGE INEQUALITY | WAGE POLICIES | PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS | RETAIL | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | SKILLED WORKERS | YOUNG WORKERS | VIOLENCE | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOR MARKET ADJUSTMENT | YOUNG PEOPLE | DEREGULATION | MARKET ANALYSES | PRODUCTIVITY
Book
08/2015, South Africa economic update,issue no. 7
Global growth hit a soft patch at the start of 2015. In the first quarter it slowed to 2.0 percent, quarter on quarter (q/q) annualized, from 2.3 percent in... 
COMPETITIVENESS | PRIVATE SERVICES | CREATING JOBS | LABOR MARKETS | FISCAL POLICY | LABOR–MARKET REGULATIONS | PRODUCTIVITY CONVERGENCE | BUSINESS CYCLE | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | MONETARY POLICY | GDP | RETAIL TRADE | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | WAGE BILL | CLERKS | PRIVATE ENTERPRISE | EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GROWTH | SKILLED LABOR | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | WORKERS | PRIVATE SECTOR | ECONOMIC OUTLOOK | EMPLOYEES | TROUGH | AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | AVERAGE WAGE | AVERAGE UNEMPLOYMENT | VOCATIONAL EDUCATION | DOMESTIC WORKERS | FEMALE LABOR | FEMALE LABOR FORCE | UNEMPLOYED | JOBS CREATION | MARKETS | PREVIOUS SECTION | VOCATIONAL TRAINING | INCOME INEQUALITY | PRIVATE SECTORS | INCOME | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | LABOR INTENSITY | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | LABOR | PUBLIC WORKS | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | PRICES | EXPECTED UNEMPLOYMENT | LABOR–MARKET | TRAINING PROGRAMS | INFORMAL ECONOMY | SKILLED OCCUPATIONS | DRIVERS | HEALTH INSURANCE | TRAINING SYSTEM | AVERAGE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | OCCUPATIONS | JOBS | INFLATION | HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISES | SMALL BUSINESSES | AGGREGATE GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT | SKILLS DEVELOPMENT | INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS | TRADE | SERVICE SECTOR | LIVING STANDARDS | WAGE INCREASE | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | WORKER | UNSKILLED WORKERS | DEBT | UNSKILLED LABOR | LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT | TRENDS | JOB CREATION | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | SKILL PREMIUM | SUPPLY | ECONOMIC SITUATION | JOB | PRODUCTIVITY GAINS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH RATE | EDUCATIONAL LEVELS | PUBLIC SERVICES | JOB LOSSES | SKILLED WORKER | EMPLOYMENT IMPACT | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | DEMAND | UNEMPLOYMENT INCREASE | WORK EXPERIENCE | MACROECONOMICS | LABOR FORCE | CONSUMPTION | RISKS | EMPLOYMENT RATE | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | LABOR SUPPLY | REAL WAGE | UNION ACTIVITY | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | HUMAN CAPITAL | LABOR MARKET PERFORMANCE | AGGREGATE DEMAND | PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAMS | EXPORTS | UNEMPLOYMENT | PRODUCTION | MANAGEMENT | HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR RELATIONS | SKILLED WORKERS | RISING UNEMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOUR FORCE | DEVELOPMENT | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATES | PRODUCTIVITY | PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT | LABOUR | CAPITAL | ECONOMY
Book
07/2015, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 7364
Using manufacturing plant-level census data, this paper demonstrates that minimum wage increases in Indonesia reduced gender wage gaps among production... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | WAGE EFFECT | STD | EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS | LABOR MARKETS | PLANT’ PRODUCTIVITY | GENDER DIFFERENCES | INEQUALITY | WAGE EFFECTS | DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS | WHITE COLLAR WORKERS | ECONOMIC ANALYSIS | WAGE BILL | MALE WORKERS | PRODUCTION WORKER | MINIMUM WAGE | EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GROWTH | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | POLITICAL ECONOMY | WORKERS | REAL WAGES | PRIOR WORK EXPERIENCE | HUMAN RESOURCES | LOCAL LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | WOMEN | GENDER GAP | GENDER IMPACT | EMPLOYEES | PRODUCTION WORKERS | INVESTMENT | AVERAGE WAGE | WAGE GAP | ON-THE-JOB TRAINING | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | MARKETS | INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS | WAGE DATA | EARNING | FEMALE WORKERS | EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS | INCOME | PRODUCTION PROCESS | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | PRODUCTION PROCESSES | FIRM SIZE | EMPLOYMENT IMPACTS | LABOR | OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN | EMPLOYEE | FORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | POLICIES | LABOR ECONOMICS | TRAINING | OCCUPATIONS | JOBS | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | OUTCOMES | PRIMARY EDUCATION | FOREIGN-OWNED FIRMS | GENDER WAGE GAPS | LAW | WAGE INCREASE | OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE | WORKER | VALUE | UNSKILLED WORKERS | TOTAL WAGE | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN | WAGE NEGOTIATIONS | GENDER COMPOSITION | DISCRIMINATION | ORGANIZATIONS | SUPPLY | JOB | GENDER MAINSTREAMING | EFFECTS | GENDER GAPS | WHO | WAGE DISCRIMINATION | PRODUCTIVE FIRMS | INFORMATION | WAGE INCREASES | WAGE LEVEL | LABOR MARKET | WAGE COMPRESSION | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | EARNINGS REGRESSIONS | MINIMUM WAGES | WORK EXPERIENCE | CREATIVE DESTRUCTION | PREVIOUS STUDIES | LOCAL LABOR MARKET | PRIMARY SCHOOL | CRISES | LABOR FORCE | WAGES | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | WAGE GAINS | PROPORTION OF WOMEN | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | AVERAGE WAGES | PAID WORKERS | BARGAINING | HUMAN CAPITAL | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | BARGAINING POWER | SEX DIFFERENCES | LABOR ORGANIZATION | FOREIGN OWNERSHIP | GENDER | UNEMPLOYMENT | PRODUCTION | WAGE INEQUALITY | FIRM LEVEL | JOB TRAINING | LABOR RELATIONS | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | SKILLED WORKERS | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | WAGE DISPERSION | PRODUCTIVITY | WAGE POLICY | ECONOMICS | FIRM PRODUCTIVITY | LABOR MARKET DISCRIMINATION | LABOUR | ECONOMIC SHOCKS
Paper
12/2009
This technical report analyzes the potential effects of the pensions and income protection systems on labor supply decisions and through this channel the... 
IMPLICIT SUBSIDIES | IMPLICIT SUBSIDY | LABOR MARKETS | MANDATORY SYSTEM | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | IMPLICIT INTEREST | OLDER WORKERS | SOCIAL PENSIONS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | MINIMUM WAGE | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | LABOR MARKET SEGMENTATION | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | RETIREMENT DECISIONS | INTEREST RATES | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | PRIVATE SECTOR | AGGREGATE PRODUCTIVITY | REAL INTEREST RATE | SMALL BUSINESS | FULL-CAREER WORKERS | SAFETY NET | BENEFIT FORMULA | OLD-AGE PENSIONS | CONTRIBUTION RATE | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT | DISCOUNT RATE | WAGE PREMIUMS | AGGREGATE PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | JOB DESTRUCTION RATES | SERVANTS | TRANSITION COUNTRIES | ACTIVE LABOR | RETIREMENT AGE | CREDIT CONSTRAINTS | TURNOVER | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM | RETIREMENT DECISION | PENSION WEALTH | FORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | MANDATORY SCHEMES | PENSION SYSTEM | FUNDED SYSTEMS | HEALTH INSURANCE | FINDING JOBS | GROWTH RATE | JOBS | UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCE | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | MARGINAL COST | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | REAL INTEREST | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | GROSS REPLACEMENT RATE | PRODUCTION UNITS | RISK POOLING | JOB SEARCH PROCESS | INCOME TAX | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | JOB DESTRUCTION | PUBLIC TRAINING PROGRAMS | DEFINED BENEFIT | RATE OF RETURN | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE | FISCAL BURDEN | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | OUTPUT | RETIREMENT | CONTRIBUTION PERIOD | SELF EMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION | FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY | SELF EMPLOYED | UNEMPLOYMENT LEVELS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | CONSUMPTION SMOOTHING | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOR INPUT | IMPLICIT TAX | JOB SECURITY | LABOR SUPPLY | AVERAGE WAGES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | LABOR COSTS | SOCIAL INSURANCE | EXPENDITURES | PRESENT VALUE | EMPLOYMENT INCREASES | PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS | PAY-AS-YOU-GO SYSTEM | PENSIONS | PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS | PENSION SYSTEMS | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS | YOUNG WORKERS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | RESERVES | INFORMAL SECTOR | SAVINGS CAPACITY | WAGE PREMIUM | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | DEPOSIT | PENSION | EXPENDITURE | UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS | INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS | GUARANTEE FUND | WAGE BILL | SOCIAL BENEFITS | DISABILITY PENSIONS | UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES | MALE WORKERS | BANK ACCOUNT | WORKERS | REAL WAGES | INCOME REDISTRIBUTION | JOB SEARCH | SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEM | INFLATION RATE | AVERAGE WAGE | SEVERANCE PAY | UNEMPLOYED | INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN | RURAL WORKERS | EARNING | PREVIOUS SECTION | INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSFERS | BENEFIT FORMULAS | INCOME | INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS | EARLY RETIREMENT | ANNUITY | INCOMES | GROSS WAGE | PAYROLL TAXES | UNEMPLOYMENT SPELL | EMPLOYEE | RETURNS | ELDERLY | MATERNITY BENEFITS | REFORM PROGRAMS | INFORMAL SECTORS | FUTURE PENSION | INCOME LEVELS | INFLATION | LABOR INCOME | IMPLICIT TAXES | RETIREMENT AGES | ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY | PENSION BENEFITS | SAVINGS ACCOUNTS | SERVICE SECTOR | SAFETY | INTERNAL RATES OF RETURN | TAX | WORKER | DISMISSAL | SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM | UNFUNDED PENSION | LIFE EXPECTANCY | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | WAREHOUSE | SAVINGS ACCOUNT | SAVINGS RATES | MOTIVATION | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | ACTIVE LABOR MARKETS | MINIMUM WAGES | PREVIOUS STUDIES | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | EMPLOYMENT DURATION | INTEREST RATE | EMPLOYMENT RATE | UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE BENEFITS | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT | LABOR FORCE GROWTH | PENSION BENEFIT | REAL WAGE | CONTINGENT LIABILITIES | BARGAINING | FINANCES | BARGAINING POWER | FUTURE PENSIONS | PUBLIC PENSION | MANDATORY SAVINGS | PENSION LIABILITIES | UNEMPLOYMENT | LEVY | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | PROGRAM COSTS | GROSS REPLACEMENT RATES
Book
12/2010
This report discusses how to establish control over the wage bill in Swaziland, which has become uncommonly large. The wage bill needs to be addressed urgently... 
CHECKS | PENSION FUND CONTRIBUTIONS | PRIVATE SERVICES | LEGAL FRAMEWORK | MINISTER | STRUCTURAL REFORMS | RECURRENT EXPENDITURE | SERVICE DELIVERY | ALLOCATION | EXPENDITURE | MINISTRY OF FINANCE | WAGE LEVELS | HEALTH SECTOR | PUBLIC DEFICIT | WAGE BILL | MACROECONOMIC STABILITY | FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY | EMPLOYMENT | POLICE | ECONOMIC GROWTH | WORKERS | FISCAL IMPACT | PRIVATE SECTOR | PUBLIC PENSION SYSTEM | ECONOMIC DOWNTURN | INFLATION RATE | QUALITY SERVICE | PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT | AVERAGE WAGE | ECONOMIC GROWTH RATE | PUBLIC SECTORS | PUBLIC SPENDING | YEARLY BUDGET | ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES | PUBLIC SERVICE | GOVERNMENT SPENDING | COLLAPSE | ACCOUNTABILITY | EARLY RETIREMENT | ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS | TURNOVER | DEBT SERVICE | EMPLOYEE | DRIVERS | ATTRITION | PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES | FISCAL REVENUE | EFFICIENCY GAINS | INFLATION | MINISTERS | CIVIL SERVICE | PUBLIC WELFARE | REFORM EFFORTS | PRIMARY EDUCATION | PURCHASING POWER | CASH FLOW | DOMESTIC REVENUE | PUBLIC SECTOR | PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK | WAGE INCREASE | MINISTRY OF DEFENSE | GOVERNMENT POLICY | PENSION FUND | FISCAL DEFICITS | WAGE NEGOTIATIONS | POLITICIANS | CIVIL SERVANT | FISCAL IMBALANCES | ACCOUNTING | PUBLIC REVENUE | POVERTY REDUCTION | CIVIL SERVANTS | RESERVE | DISCRETION | REFORM AGENDA | FISCAL DEFICIT | PRIMARY SCHOOL | EXPENDITURE LEVELS | LABOR FORCE | BENEFICIARIES | MACROECONOMIC POLICY | PENSION FUND CONTRIBUTION | FISCAL IMPLICATIONS | MASS LAYOFFS | CONFLICT OF INTEREST | SOCIAL WELFARE | PUBLIC PENSION | EXPENDITURES | INITIATIVE | PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT | PUBLIC DEBT | CONFIDENCE | UNEMPLOYMENT | PREVIOUS ONE | REASSIGNMENT | PUBLIC EXPENDITURE | BUDGET DECISIONS | REVENUE LEVELS | HIGH WAGE | FINANCIAL HEALTH | EXPENDITURE PLANS | LUMP SUM TRANSFERS | SIZE OF GOVERNMENT | COMPENSATION PACKAGES
Book
08/2015, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 7392
Wage inequality decreased significantly in the Russian Federation over the 2000s. The economic expansion experienced throughout the decade led to an... 
STRUCTURAL CHANGE | LABOR MARKETS | MONITORING | WAGE PREMIUM | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | ECONOMIC STRUCTURE | BASE YEAR | URBAN WORKERS | GDP | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | MALE WORKERS | CLERKS | MINIMUM WAGE | EMPLOYMENT | TOTAL WAGES | MARKET ECONOMY | ECONOMIC GROWTH | POLITICAL ECONOMY | EXTREME POVERTY | AGRICULTURE | PRODUCTIVITY EFFECTS | WORKERS | PRIVATE SECTOR | REAL WAGES | ELASTICITY OF SUBSTITUTION | WAGE STRUCTURE | PAYING JOBS | INFLATION RATE | EMPLOYEES | JOB INSECURITY | FINANCIAL SECTOR | AVERAGE WAGE | WAGE GAP | FEMALE LABOR | FEMALE LABOR FORCE | HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS | MARKETS | DEVELOPMENT POLICY | UNPAID WORKERS | INFLUENCE | STANDARDS | RURAL WORKERS | EARNING | INCOME INEQUALITY | WAGE PREMIUMS | PRIVATE SECTORS | INCOME | AGE GROUP | FINANCE | FIRM SIZE | LABOR | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | DISTRIBUTION | PRICES | EMPLOYEE | DRIVERS | ECONOMIC EXPANSION | POLICIES | FINANCIAL CRISIS | LABOR ECONOMICS | OCCUPATIONS | GROWTH RATE | PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS | PREVIOUS DISCUSSION | JOBS | PER CAPITA INCOME | OCCUPATION | VARIABLES | OUTCOMES | OWNERSHIP | PRIVATE FIRMS | ECONOMIC RECOVERY | COLLEGE EDUCATION | LAW | SERVICE SECTOR | INEQUALITY MEASURES | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | WORKER | VALUE | UNSKILLED WORKERS | TRENDS | TOTAL WAGE | ORGANIZATIONS | INFLATION RATES | SKILL PREMIUM | SUPPLY | NOMINAL WAGES | CONTRACTUAL WAGES | JOB | ACCOUNTING | DISPOSABLE INCOME | EFFECTS | CRITERIA | RETIREMENT | INFORMATION | PUBLIC SERVICES | INTERNATIONAL MARKETS | AGE CATEGORIES | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | WAGE COMPRESSION | DEMAND | MINIMUM WAGES | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES | EXPECTATIONS | CRISES | COLLEGE GRADUATES | LABOR FORCE | MONEY | WAGES | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | DISADVANTAGED GROUPS | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | AVERAGE WAGES | PAID WORKERS | HIGH WAGES | AVERAGING | ELASTICITY | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | FOREIGN OWNERSHIP | RURAL EMPLOYMENT | PRIVATE FIRM | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | MEASUREMENT | PRESENT STUDY | UNEMPLOYMENT | PRODUCTION | ECONOMIC MOBILITY | WAGE INEQUALITY | WAGE POLICIES | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | WAGE DIFFERENTIAL | SKILLED WORKERS | WAGE DISPERSION | YOUNG WORKERS | GDP PER CAPITA | LABOR MARKET ADJUSTMENT | HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT | PRODUCTIVITY | WAGE POLICY | ECONOMICS | LABOUR
Paper
11/2010
Ghana has developed a "New Approach to Public Sector Reform", which seeks to focus reforms on results, particularly the delivery of the Government's main... 
MINISTER | LABOR MARKETS | JUDICIARY | SERVICE DELIVERY | DEBT FINANCING | EXPORT MARKET | PRIVATIZATION | WAGE BILL | INDIRECT COST | ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE | ACCOUNTABILITIES | POLICE | ASSETS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | POLITICAL ECONOMY | PUBLIC POLICY | PRIVATE SECTOR | REAL WAGES | HUMAN RESOURCES | MDAS | CASH MANAGEMENT | RISK SHARING | FOREIGN EXCHANGE | PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT | PUBLIC | PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE | ELECTRICITY | LABOR MARKET REGULATION | PERFORMANCE INDICATORS | PREVIOUS SECTION | MANDATES | PUBLIC SERVICE | LEGISLATION | DOMESTIC PRODUCERS | PRIVATE SECTORS | PATRONAGE | ACCOUNTABILITY | INCOME | PRIVATE SECTOR ACTIVITY | EQUALIZATION | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | PRIMARY SOURCE | PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS | LOCAL GOVERNMENTS | PRIVATE SECTOR WAGE | COLLECTIVE BARGAINING | REFORM PROGRAMS | WAGE RATES | PUBLIC FUNDS | DEMONSTRATION EFFECTS | JOBS | INFLATION | MINISTERS | CIVIL SERVICE | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | JOB CREATION PROGRAM | DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES | INNOVATIONS | SKILLS DEVELOPMENT | BUDGET PROCESS | PORTS | FISCAL BALANCE | EMPLOYMENT GENERATION | PUBLIC SECTOR | SAFETY | INNOVATION | INTERNAL EQUITY | DEBT | TOTAL WAGE | BIDDING | JOB CREATION | ORGANIZED LABOR | WAGE NEGOTIATIONS | REASONABLE ASSUMPTIONS | FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT | PRIVATE SECTOR JOBS | ROADS | ACCOUNTING | ECONOMIC STABILITY | JOB CREATION SCHEME | GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION | PUBLIC SERVICES | PUBLIC INVESTMENT | LABOR UNIONS | PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT | TELECOMMUNICATIONS | JUSTICE | PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES | CIVIL SERVANTS | LABOR MARKET | OUTPUTS | PUBLIC INVESTMENTS | TRADE UNIONS | LABOR INTENSITIES | STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES | DEVOLUTION | JOB SECURITY | PROVISIONS | PROCUREMENT | CONFLICT OF INTEREST | SOCIAL WELFARE | BARGAINING | TRANSPORT | WAGE NEGOTIATION | INITIATIVE | LOCAL GOVERNMENT | PUBLIC SERVANTS | WAGE POLICIES | PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION | HIGH EMPLOYMENT | PUBLIC EXPENDITURE | PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | CAPITAL MARKETS | PROCUREMENT LAW | PRIVATE SECTOR JOB | PRODUCTIVITY | SAVINGS | LABOUR | CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
Book
09/2015
Mauritius is a high middle-income country with low levels of poverty and inequality. The headcount poverty level was 6.9 percent in 2012; measured by the... 
INFORMAL SECTOR | LABOR MARKETS | INCOME SUPPORT | RETAIL TRADE | YOUTH LABOR | INCOME DISTRIBUTION | LABOR SHORTAGES | OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION | PRIVATE ENTERPRISE | EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS | MINIMUM WAGE | EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GROWTH | TOTAL WAGES | SKILLED LABOR | PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | WORKING POOR | RE-TRAINING PROGRAMS | EMPLOYMENT LEVELS | UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES | WORKERS | PRIVATE SECTOR | REAL WAGES | SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME | LABOR MARKET NEEDS | INCOME REDISTRIBUTION | HUMAN RESOURCES | EMPLOYEES | SKILLED OCCUPATION | EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | WAGE INDICATORS | AVERAGE WAGE | WAGE GAP | ON-THE-JOB TRAINING | FEMALE LABOR | FEMALE LABOR FORCE | EMPLOYMENT LEVEL | UNEMPLOYED | INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS | PREVIOUS SECTION | VOCATIONAL TRAINING | EARNING | INCOME INEQUALITY | PUBLIC SERVICE | WAGE PREMIUMS | WORKING CONDITIONS | AGE GROUP | SERVANTS | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | LABOR STATISTICS | ACTIVE LABOR | FIRM SIZE | EMPLOYMENT SHARE | YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | LABOR MARKET INDICATORS | LABOR | JOB- SEARCH ASSISTANCE | LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION | WAGE DETERMINATION | TRAINING PROGRAMS | SKILLED OCCUPATIONS | PRIVATE COST | COLLECTIVE BARGAINING | DRIVERS | TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY | CARPENTERS | LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS | DISADVANTAGED POSITION | LABOR ECONOMICS | TOTAL UNEMPLOYMENT | OCCUPATIONS | CLERICAL WORKERS | JOBS | SMALL BUSINESSES | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | REALLOCATION EFFECT | YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT | PRIMARY EDUCATION | SERVICE SECTOR | WAGE BARGAINING | WAGE INCREASE | NET JOB CREATION | PRODUCT MARKETS | MALE COUNTERPARTS | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | WORKER | TOTAL WAGE | TOTAL LABOR FORCE | YOUTH RATE | INCOME INEQUALITIES | JOB CREATION | HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT | HIGH-TECH INDUSTRIES | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT PROGRAM | LABOR MARKET CHARACTERISTICS | JOB | PRODUCTIVITY GAINS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | EDUCATIONAL LEVEL | EDUCATIONAL LEVELS | INCOME SUPPORT PROGRAM | LABOR REGULATIONS | RETIREMENT | PUBLIC SERVICES | JOB SEEKERS | PRIVATE ENTERPRISES | SELF EMPLOYMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT LEVELS | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR POLICIES | ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY | LABOR MARKET | FINDING WORK | LABOR PRODUCTIVITY | MINIMUM WAGES | WORK EXPERIENCE | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | FOREIGN WORKERS | PRIMARY SCHOOL | LABOR FORCE | EMPLOYMENT RATE | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT | LABOR SUPPLY | REAL WAGE | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | AVERAGE WAGES | HOUSEHOLD SURVEY | PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT | LABOR COSTS | HIGH WAGES | JOB PLACEMENT | HUMAN CAPITAL | WAGE DISTRIBUTION | DISADVANTAGED GROUP | BARGAINING POWER | LABOR ORGANIZATION | PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT | WHITE-COLLAR OCCUPATIONS | WAGE DIFFERENTIALS | ESTIMATED PROBABILITIES | AGE GROUPS | UNEMPLOYMENT | WAGE INEQUALITY | FIRM LEVEL | DOMESTIC MARKET | JOB TRAINING | MANAGEMENT | EMPLOYMENT POLICIES | EXOGENOUS SHOCKS | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | WAGE DIFFERENTIAL | UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS | SKILLED WORKERS | COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS | LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS | RISING UNEMPLOYMENT | YOUNG WORKERS | FIRM-LEVEL ANALYSIS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | LABOUR FORCE | HIGH-TECH INDUSTRY | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATES | PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT | EMPLOYMENT RATES | LABOUR
Report
09/2015, Policy Research Working Paper, Volume 7426
This paper documents the changing structure of wages in India over the post-reform era, the roughly two-decade period since 1993. To investigate the factors... 
LAGS | COMPETITIVE MARKET | LABOR MARKETS | POOR | INEQUALITY | WAGE‐GROWTH | WAGE PREMIUM | INDUSTRY WAGE | EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE | RETAIL TRADE | LABOR SHARE | RURAL LABOR MARKETS | ECONOMIC ANALYSIS | EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GROWTH | WELFARE | WAGE‐EARNER | MARKET | ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS | AGRICULTURE | WORKERS | REAL WAGES | DEFLATORS | ELASTICITY OF SUBSTITUTION | PUBLIC‐WORKS PROGRAM | WAGE STRUCTURE | PAYING JOBS | SOCIAL PROGRAMS | MARKET WAGE | AGRICULTURAL PRICES | BASE‐YEAR | POVERTY | AGRICULTURAL SECTOR | FEMALE LABOR | FEMALE LABOR FORCE | WAGE EMPLOYMENT | MARKETS | DEVELOPMENT POLICY | CASUAL WORKERS | RURAL WORKERS | PREVIOUS SECTION | URBAN EMPLOYMENT | EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE | INCOME | FINANCE | EMPLOYMENT GROWTH | EMPLOYMENT SHARE | LABOR | FOOD PRICES | RURAL SERVICES | PUBLIC WORKS | EARNINGS INEQUALITY | ASSOCIATIONS | PRICES | DRIVERS | LABOR MARKET INTERVENTION | LABOR ECONOMICS | GROWTH RATE | RURAL | TRADE LIBERALIZATION | JOBS | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | PRODUCTION FUNCTION | VARIABLES | LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES | OUTCOMES | PUBLIC‐WORKS | TRADE | AGRICULTURAL WAGE | SERVICE SECTOR | SAFETY | GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM | RURAL SECTOR | TOTAL EMPLOYMENT | WORKER | VALUE | UNSKILLED WORKERS | UNSKILLED LABOR | TRENDS | RURAL COUNTERPARTS | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION | PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM | RURAL FEMALE | ORGANIZATIONS | PRODUCT | SKILL PREMIUM | SUPPLY | JOB | REAL‐ WAGE | EFFECTS | SAFETY‐NET | INFORMATION | POVERTY REDUCTION | WAGE INCREASES | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | LABOR MARKET | HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISE | DEMAND | PUBLIC‐ WORKS | RURAL LABOR | SELF‐EMPLOYED | MEASURES | GROUP WORKERS | LABOR FORCE | POST-REFORM | WAGES | WAGE GAINS | LABOR SUPPLY | REAL WAGE | INSURANCE | CONSUMER PRICE INDEX | SELF‐EMPLOYMENT | RURAL AREAS | ELASTICITY | RURAL EMPLOYMENT | MEASUREMENT | REGRESSION ANALYSIS | UNEMPLOYMENT | PRODUCTION | WAGE INEQUALITY | RURAL GROWTH | PUBLIC‐ WORKS PROGRAM | LABOR DEMAND | LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS | INPUTS | RURAL DIVIDE | SKILL‐UPGRADING | WAGE‐PREMIUM | ECONOMICS | RURAL WAGES
Paper
05/2011
This note attempts to describe the pension system in Belarus including its fiscal performance, redistributive aspects benefit levels and benefit eligibility... 
RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS | PENSION AGE | LABOR MARKETS | FERTILITY RATES | INEQUALITY | PENSION SYSTEM PARAMETER | PENSION | EXPENDITURE | RETIREMENT BENEFITS | BENEFIT LEVELS | OLDER WORKERS | EARLY RETIREMENT PROGRAMS | MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT | PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT | WAGE BILL | PENSION SCHEME | MINIMUM WAGE | EMPLOYMENT | WAGE GROWTH | INTEREST RATES | WORKERS | PENSION PLAN | INCOME REDISTRIBUTION | FEMALE | REPLACEMENT RATE | BASIC PENSION | BENEFIT FORMULA | GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT | CONTRIBUTION RATE | FUTURE INCOME | RETIREMENT OPTION | RETIREMENT PERIODS | AVERAGE WAGE | PENSION POLICY | MORTALITY | UNEMPLOYED | EARNING | FERTILITY | SUBSIDIZED WORKER | DISCOUNT RATES | SERVANTS | RETIREMENT INCOME | SOCIAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS | TRANSFER PAYMENTS | EARLY RETIREMENT | ANNUITY | INCOMES | PENSIONER | RETIREMENT AGE | NOTIONAL ACCOUNT SYSTEM | BENEFICIARY | PENSION RIGHTS | EMPLOYEE | MACROECONOMIC VOLATILITY | PENSION SYSTEM | DRIVERS | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | FINANCIAL CRISIS | GROWTH RATE | OCCUPATIONS | PREVIOUS DISCUSSION | JOBS | FUNDED PENSION | INFLATION | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | OCCUPATION | RETIREMENT AGES | WORKING PENSIONERS | PENSION BENEFITS | PURCHASING POWER | PENSION LAW | SAVINGS ACCOUNTS | NOTIONAL ACCOUNTS | LIVING STANDARDS | FEMALES | WORKER | PENSION FUND MEMBERSHIP | WOMAN | PENSION INCOME | PENSION FUND | FISCAL DEFICITS | INCOME TAX | DISABILITY | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | LIFE EXPECTANCY | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTS | RETIREMENT | SAVINGS ACCOUNT | PENSION CONTRIBUTION | NOTIONAL ACCOUNT | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | AVERAGE BENEFIT | INCOME STREAM | LABOR MARKET | GENDERS | REPLACEMENT RATES | RETIREE | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | EARLY RETIREMENT PROGRAM | VOLATILITY | LABOR FORCE | BENEFICIARIES | SOCIAL SECURITY | INTEREST RATE | INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS | BENEFIT INDEXATION | PENSION BENEFIT | REAL WAGE | CONTRIBUTION RATES | SOCIAL INSURANCE | SOCIAL TRANSFER | PENSION EXPENDITURES | EMPLOYMENT LAW | FINANCES | PRICE INDEXATION | PENSIONS | COMPENSATION | FERTILITY RATE | DEPENDENCY RATIO | PENSION SYSTEMS | PENSIONABLE AGE | PENSIONERS | HIGH WAGE | NOMINAL WAGE | SAVINGS | SURVIVOR PENSIONS | WILL
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