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adaptive immunity (1) 1
adaptive immunity: host antimicrobial defenses involving pathogen detection of specific antigens by somatically recombined receptors, and characterized by clonal expansion of pathogen-specific lymphocytes and immunologic memory (1) 1
animals (1) 1
anoikis: apoptosis of epithelial cells induced by detachment from the extracellular matrix (1) 1
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b and il-29), each with distinct receptors (1) 1
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complement: a system of more than thirty proteins activated by three pathways that permeabilize pathogens with the membrane attack complex, opsonize microbes and release fragments with signaling properties such as the anaphylotoxins c3a and c5a (1) 1
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innate immunity: host antimicrobial defenses involving detection of conserved molecular motifs by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors, and characterized by rapid but transient responses of both leukocytes and parenchymal cells (1) 1
interferon: a subset of cytokines that inhibit viral replication within host cells and activate leukocytes. there are three classes – type i (1) 1
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Annual Review of Physiology, ISSN 0066-4278, 03/2009, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp. 413 - 435
Most studies of innate immunity have focused on leukocytes such as neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer cells. However, epithelial cells play key roles... 
Antimicrobial | Innate immunity | Pneumonia | Microbial killing | antimicrobial | PHYSIOLOGY | HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIA | TOLL-LIKE-RECEPTOR | CATHELICIDIN ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE | ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY | microbial killing | GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA | innate immunity | pneumonia | PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA | IMMUNE-RESPONSES | HOST-DEFENSE | COMPLEMENT ANAPHYLATOXIN C3A | PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS | Respiratory Mucosa - anatomy & histology | Pneumonia - therapy | Infection - therapy | Lung Diseases - diagnosis | Infection - immunology | Lung Diseases - microbiology | Humans | Infection - microbiology | Lung Diseases - therapy | Pneumonia - microbiology | Blood Bactericidal Activity | Lung Diseases - immunology | Respiratory Mucosa - microbiology | Animals | Immunity, Innate - physiology | Infection - diagnosis | Pneumonia - diagnosis | Respiratory Mucosa - immunology | Pneumonia - immunology | Cytokines | Lung diseases | Physiological aspects | Causes of | Anti-infective agents | Research | Leukocytes | Health aspects | Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi): an unencapsulated (hence non-typeable) strain of a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is frequently cultured from the lungs of patients with chronic respiratory disease | Interferon (IFN): a subset of cytokines that inhibit viral replication within host cells and activate leukocytes. There are three classes – Type I (α, β, ω, ε, and κ), Type II (γ), and Type III (λ1-3, also known as IL-28A | Interleukin (IL): a widely expressed and highly variable group of cytokine signaling molecules involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses | Innate immunity: host antimicrobial defenses involving detection of conserved molecular motifs by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors, and characterized by rapid but transient responses of both leukocytes and parenchymal cells | Leucine rich repeats (LRR): common molecular sequences of many pattern recognition receptors that generally occur within pathogen recognition domains | B and IL-29), each with distinct receptors | Transcytosis: mechanism of transport across polarized epithelial cells involving endocytois of extracellular macromolecules or particles on one surface, transcellular vesicle trafficking, and exocytosis on the other surface | Pattern recognition receptors (PRR): membrane-associated, cytosolic or secreted host products that recognize conserved molecular patterns on pathogens, initiating innate immune responses. These include Toll-like receptors (TLR), NOD-like receptors (NLR), RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), class A scavenger receptors (SR-A), and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) | Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE): a multifunctional member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that recognizes several host immunomodulatory proteins, including HMGB1 and S100, as well as host proteins without immunomodulatory activity that become glycated during aging or inflammation | Resistance: the strategy of host survival of infection that is associated with a reduction in pathogen burden; this is contrasted to tolerance, the strategy of generating a host phenotype indifferent to the pathogen burden | Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, the lipid A portion of which is recognized by TLR4 in association with MD2 and CD14 | Complement: a system of more than thirty proteins activated by three pathways that permeabilize pathogens with the membrane attack complex, opsonize microbes and release fragments with signaling properties such as the anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a | Hemolymph: fluid in the body cavity of insects, homologous to vertebrate blood, with most proteins produced by the fat body, homologous to the vertebrate liver, with functions in both metabolism and immunity | Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI): epithelium-derived protease inhibitor with intrinsic antibacterial activity | Transmigration: paracellular migration of leukocytes or pathogens through epithelial or endothelial barriers and associated basement membranes | Anoikis: apoptosis of epithelial cells induced by detachment from the extracellular matrix | Toll | Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP): stereotypic molecular motifs conserved across microbial species that are recognized by pattern recognition receptors, triggering innate immune responses | Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP): molecular motifs expressed on or released by infected or injured host cells, also known as danger signals or alarmins | Adaptive immunity: host antimicrobial defenses involving pathogen detection of specific antigens by somatically recombined receptors, and characterized by clonal expansion of pathogen-specific lymphocytes and immunologic memory | Interleukin-1 receptor adaptors (TIR adaptors): host peptides that are selectively recruited to Toll-like receptors and IL-1 receptor upon ligand binding and are required for signal propagation
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