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Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, 04/2016, Volume 54, pp. 469 - 478
The accuracy of sovereign credit ratings renewed interest toward sovereign credit ratings in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. The controversy over... 
Ordered probit | Sovereign credit ratings | Artificial intelligence | Credit rating agencies | SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES | BAYESIAN NETWORKS | CDS | DETERMINANTS | RISK | ECONOMICS | EQUITY | Analysis | Models | Credit ratings
Journal Article
Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, 04/2016, Volume 54, p. 469
  The accuracy of sovereign credit ratings renewed interest toward sovereign credit ratings in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. The controversy over... 
Studies | Economic models | Credit ratings | Sovereign debt | Artificial intelligence | Economic crisis
Journal Article
Economic modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, 04/2016, Volume 54, pp. 469 - 469
The accuracy of sovereign credit ratings renewed interest toward sovereign credit ratings in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. The controversy over... 
Studies | Sovereign debt
Journal Article
2017, Routledge Studies in Corporate Governance, ISBN 1138678546, 186
eBook
European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, 04/2016, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp. 184 - 212
This study attempts to provide one of the first comprehensive analyses on the relationship between sovereign credit ratings and governance indicators. The... 
governance indicators | developed country | developing country | credit rating | DEVELOPMENT STUDIES | DEBT | Studies | Credit | Economic theory | Rating | Credit ratings | Economic policy | Global economy | Governance | Sovereign debt | Economic development | Indexes (Measures) | International
Journal Article
European journal of development research, ISSN 0957-8811, 04/2016, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp. 184 - 212
This study attempts to provide one of the first comprehensive analyses on the relationship between sovereign credit ratings and governance indicators. The... 
Studies | Sovereign debt | International
Journal Article
01/2012, ISBN 1463999372, 34
We find that Credit Rating Agencies (CRA)'s opinions have an impact in the cost of funding of sovereign issuers and consequently ratings are a concern for... 
Credit Rating Agencies | Credit Risk | Sovereign Ratings | Risk Management | Credit Default Swap | Sovereign Debt
Book
Journal of Network Theory in Finance, ISSN 2055-7795, 2019, Volume 5, Issue 1, p. 47
In this paper, we investigate a credit rating problem based on the network of trading information (NoTI). First, several popular tools, such as assortativity... 
Naturvetenskap | centrality | sovereign debt | Mathematics | world trade information | Natural Sciences | Matematik | credit rating | network
Journal Article
Journal of Forecasting, ISSN 0277-6693, 11/2013, Volume 32, Issue 7, pp. 654 - 672
ABSTRACTModeling credit rating migrations conditional on macroeconomic conditions allows financial institutions to assess, analyze, and manage the risk related... 
stress testing | credit rating | macroeconomic indicators | migration modeling | BUSINESS-CYCLE | MANAGEMENT | RISK EVALUATION | SOVEREIGN | MATRICES | ECONOMICS | NETWORK RULE EXTRACTION
Journal Article
2012, ISBN 9781461405221, Volume 9781461405238, 199
This book examines the debt of sovereign nations. It explains the methodology behind how rating agencies evaluate nations and looks at sovereign defaults from... 
Finance & Accounting | Sovereign wealth funds | Economic policy | Economics/Management Science | Economic Policy | Macroeconomics/Monetary Economics | Finance/Investment/Banking | Financial Economics | Debts, Public
eBook
2016, Palgrave pivot, ISBN 9781137397102, ix, 125
Sovereign Debt and Credit Rating Bias investigates rating agencies' assignments of sovereign debt upgrades and downgrades to examine the pervasive allegations... 
Rating agencies (Finance) | Evaluation | Ratings and rankings | Debts, Public | Credit ratings
Book
German Economic Review, ISSN 1465-6485, 02/2014, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp. 208 - 224
This article gives a fresh analysis of sovereign ratings, including the recent default of Greece. Section 1 studies the evolution of the sovereign rating... 
default | Credit rating agencies | financial markets | sovereign debt | Financial markets | Sovereign debt | Default | ECONOMICS | Studies | Economic theory | Credit ratings
Journal Article
International Review of Financial Analysis, ISSN 1057-5219, 01/2012, Volume 21, pp. 45 - 55
We analyse sovereign watch and outlook signals from Moody's, S&P and Fitch. Prior literature shows strong market reactions to these signals, which arguably... 
Sovereign watch | Momentum | Lead–lag relationship | Sovereign outlook | Credit rating agencies | Lead-lag relationship | MIGRATION | DEFAULT SWAP SPREADS | BUSINESS, FINANCE | IMPACT | ANNOUNCEMENTS | STOCK MARKETS | BOND | Analysis | Credit ratings
Journal Article
Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, 8/2011, Volume 188, Issue 1, pp. 185 - 213
Journal Article
2012, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISBN 364230432X, Volume 115
Credit rating agencies are being widely criticized because the lack of transparency in their rating procedures and the huge impact of the ratings they... 
Artificial Intelligence (incl. Robotics) | Simulation and Modeling | Computer Appl. in Administrative Data Processing | Math Applications in Computer Science | Operations Research/Decision Theory | Computer Science | Sovereign credit rating | European Union | Neural networks | Credit rating modeling
Book Chapter
Journal of Credit Risk, ISSN 1744-6619, 12/2014, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp. 3 - 43
This paper analyzes the factors influencing the sovereign credit ratings of the new EU member states along with potential entrants. We model the ratings of the... 
BUSINESS, FINANCE | IMPACT | MARKET | AGENCIES | DETERMINANTS | Studies | Macroeconomics | Sovereign debt | EU membership | Credit ratings
Journal Article
Comparative Political Studies, ISSN 0010-4140, 4/2018, Volume 51, Issue 5, pp. 587 - 620
Journal Article
Journal of International Money and Finance, ISSN 0261-5606, 07/2018, Volume 85, pp. 40 - 57
This paper assesses contagion and competition as alternative types of stock market spillovers arising from sovereign rating actions. Our research design is... 
Spillovers | Rating convergence | Split rating | Contagion versus competition | Sovereign credit signals | Stock markets | Analysis | Externalities (Economics)
Journal Article
2011, World Bank Studies, ISBN 0821387812, xii, 61
Examining innovative ways to address Africa?s infrastructure deficit is at the heart of this analysis. Africa?s infrastructure stock and quality is among the... 
INVESTMENT FUND | SECURITY STRUCTURES | REGULATORY BARRIERS | WITHDRAWAL OF FUNDS | MATURITIES | NATIONAL INVESTMENT | PRIVATE INVESTORS | ISSUANCE | FOREIGN CURRENCY | SHORT-TERM DEPOSITS | LOCAL MARKET | PRIVATE CREDIT | TRANSITION ECONOMIES | LIABILITY | BONDS | CENTRAL BANK | CREDIT ENHANCEMENT | FOREIGN EXCHANGE | PENSION FUND INVESTMENTS | INVESTING | INVESTMENT CORPORATION | PRIVATE INVESTMENT | BALANCE SHEET | CASH FLOWS | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT | LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES | STOCK EXCHANGES | INFRASTRUCTURE BOND | BOURSE | LONG-TERM DEBT | POLITICAL RISKS | ISSUANCE OF BONDS | LOCAL CURRENCY | LIFE INSURANCE POLICIES | CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS | INTERNATIONAL FINANCE | BANK CREDIT | LENDING LIMIT | INVESTMENT GUIDELINES | PENSION FUND INVESTMENT | CREDIT AGENCY | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL STATISTICS | RISK MANAGEMENT | CORPORATE BOND | ASSET-LIABILITY MISMATCH | STOCKS | BANK LENDING | GOVERNMENT GRANTS | SOVEREIGN LENDING | GOVERNMENT BOND MARKET | INTERNATIONAL BANK | INVESTMENT BANK | FINANCING REQUIREMENTS | COMPETITIVE BIDDING | CREDIT RATING | PENSION FUND | INSURANCE POLICIES | MORAL HAZARD | LONG-TERM YIELDS | ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS | FINANCIAL RISKS | ILLIQUIDITY | SOVEREIGN RATING | CREDIT LINES | BOND ISSUANCES | ASSET CLASSES | GOVERNMENT BONDS | PRIVATE FINANCE | RESERVE BANK | MEZZANINE DEBT | PUBLIC INVESTMENT | PENSION FUNDS | LOCAL DEBT | CAPITAL MOVEMENTS | INVESTMENT ASSET | INVESTMENT REGULATIONS | INFRASTRUCTURE BONDS | RESERVE | BOND ISSUANCE | DIRECT INVESTMENT | EQUITY FUNDS | DEVELOPMENT BANK | MONEY MARKET | DIRECT INVESTMENTS | ENABLING ENVIRONMENT | POTENTIAL INVESTOR | GOVERNMENT SUPPORT | INSURANCE | MATURITY | LONG-TERM INVESTMENT | BORROWER | CENTRAL BANKS | PRIVATE FINANCING | LONG-TERM DEBT MARKET | RETURN | DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS | LOAN | INSURANCE MARKET | EXPENDITURES | PRIVATE PARTIES | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | INSURANCE INDUSTRY | BOND | PENSIONS | BOND MARKETS | CURRENCY | FOREIGN FINANCING | PENSION SYSTEMS | MORTGAGE | STOCK EXCHANGE | GOVERNMENT BOND | FUND MANAGERS | COUPON | FIXED INTEREST RATE | MONEY MARKET INSTRUMENTS | PARTIAL RISK | FIXED INCOME | FOREIGN BANKS | MARKET FAILURES | YIELD CURVE | MARKET MAKER | IMMOVABLE PROPERTY | DEPOSIT | LONG TERM DEBT | PENSION | DEBT FINANCING | GUARANTEE FUND | CAPITAL INVESTMENT | LONG-TERM COST | FIXED INTEREST | CREDIT RISK | BOND RATING | TOTAL DEBT | COUPON RATE | BANK LOANS | INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCE | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | DUE DILIGENCE | RISK SHARING | BOND HOLDERS | RISK PREMIUMS | LONG-TERM FINANCE | RISK PROFILE | LOCAL MARKETS | REGULATORY FRAMEWORK | INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING | PENSION ASSETS | TRANSACTION | INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT | SECONDARY BOND MARKETS | CAPITAL MARKET | TRANSFER RISKS | RISK DIVERSIFICATION | GRACE PERIODS | BALANCE SHEETS | SECURITIES | RETURNS | GOVERNMENT BUDGET | FINANCIAL CRISIS | GROUP BORROWER | MUNICIPAL BONDS | PUBLIC FUNDS | MUTUAL FUNDS | CORPORATE BONDS | LONG-TERM LOANS | ASSET MANAGEMENT | INFLATION | EQUITY MARKETS | ALTERNATIVE ASSET | GOVERNMENT SECURITIES | WITHDRAWAL | INSURANCE CORPORATION | POLITICAL RISK | COUNTRY RISK | COMMERCIAL BANKS | INFRASTRUCTURE CONCESSION | CAPACITY BUILDING | TAX | PRIVATE EQUITY | LIFE INSURANCE | SUBORDINATED DEBT | ACCOUNTING | PRINCIPAL REPAYMENTS | GUARANTEE PRODUCTS | CORPORATE BOND MARKET | LOAN EXPOSURE | PENSION FUND ASSET | LONG-TERM RESOURCE | TELECOMMUNICATIONS | GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES | RECOURSE FINANCING | CREDIT RATINGS | ASSET CLASS | MARKET CONSTRAINTS | FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK | CREDIT GUARANTEE | CREDIT RATING AGENCY | INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS | INVESTMENT PROCESS | INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE | CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT | CREDITOR | TRANSPARENCY | TREASURY | LOCAL BANKS | RISK MEASUREMENT | PORTFOLIO | INSURANCE INDUSTRIES | MONETARY FUND | REGULATORY AUTHORITY | HOLDINGS | INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS | BANKING SECTOR | PARTIAL CREDIT | SOVEREIGN DEBT | CAPITAL MARKETS | LOCAL FINANCIAL MARKETS | LONG-TERM RESOURCES
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