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2008, ISBN 0230219322, xiv, 282
How should Japan cope with the challenges posed by a shrinking and ageing population and the quickening pace of globalization? Japan has largely overcome the... 
Japan Economic conditions | Japan Economic policy
Book
2012, ISBN 1616353813, xx, 328
Emerging Europe was particularly hard hit by the global financial crisis, but a concerted effort by local policymakers and the international community staved... 
Parex | Global Financial Crisis | Credit Boom | Boom-bust | Domestic-demand Boom | External Imbalances | Vulnerabilities | Emerging Europe | Absorption Boom | Overheating
Book
2005, ISBN 9781589064706, ix, 229
This book provides a comprehensive review of recent economic developments in South Africa and the structural and policy challenges facing the authorities.... 
Book
1986, ISBN 9780939934751, xix, 380
Written by Anne Romanis Braun, a former staff member of the IMF's Research Department, this volume deals with the nature of wage determination and the problem... 
Wages | Government policy | Wage-price policy | Prices | Demand Management | Incomes Policy | Wage Indexation
Book
2015, First edition., Economics collection, ISBN 160649676X, viii, 249 pages
Book
2005, Occasional paper / International Monetary Fund, ISBN 1589063503, Volume no. 234., xii, 135
Upon entry into the European Union, countries become members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), with a derogation from adopting the euro as their... 
Europe centrale Intégration économique | Monetary unions | Union économique et monétaire | Foreign exchange rates | Monetary policy | Europe, Central Economic integration | Europe, Eastern Economic integration | Euro | Politique monétaire
Book
2007, Occasional paper, ISBN 1589066146, Volume 258, xii, 135
Robust GDP growth, declining unemployment, low and stable inflation, and a string of fiscal and current account surpluses: these outcomes in Canada owe much to... 
Monetary policy | Canada Economic conditions | Fiscal policy | Canada Economic policy | Pension | Energy | Growth | Banking | Inflation Targeting | Macroeconomics | Economic Growth
Book
1987, Occasional paper, ISBN 9781452717715, Volume no. 50, 84
This report comprises three papers written by staff members of the Fund's Research Department on issues arising out of the reports on the international... 
Monetary policy | International finance | Foreign exchange
Book
2008, World Bank working paper, ISBN 0821373692, Volume no. 129, v, 40
This study finds that pension reforms in recent years have improved the efficiency and sustainability of pension systems in the new member states of the... 
Pensions | European Union countries | Croatia | NET ASSET | ASSET ALLOCATION | FINANCIAL BENEFITS | PENSION AGE | ASSET ALLOCATIONS | PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS | INVESTMENT RISK | YOUNGER PEOPLE | RETIREMENT BENEFITS | SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS | OLDER WORKERS | MINIMUM CONTRIBUTION | MINIMUM WAGE | INFORMATION ON PENSION | WAGE GROWTH | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | INDIVIDUAL SAVINGS | RETIREMENT ELIGIBILITY | CONTRIBUTION BASE | MINIMUM PENSION | EARNINGS | LIFETIME | EARNINGS INDEXATION | REPLACEMENT RATE | CONTRIBUTION | SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS | BASIC PENSION | BONDS | BENEFIT FORMULA | OLD-AGE PENSIONS | ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT | CONTRIBUTION RATE | VALUE OF MONEY | MORTALITY | PENSION PLANS | PUBLIC PENSIONS | FERTILITY | BENEFIT RATES | PENSION ENTITLEMENTS | FISCAL CONSOLIDATION | VALUABLE | INSURANCE COMPANY | CONTRIBUTION BASES | RETIREMENT AGE | PENSION COMPANIES | SOCIAL INSURANCE AGENCIES | INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO | INFLATION INDEXATION | PENSION SYSTEM | HEALTH INSURANCE | CONTRIBUTIONS | GROWTH RATE | PUBLIC FINANCE | POPULATION AGEING | SOCIAL CONTRIBUTION | ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS | INTERNATIONAL BANK | INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES | LIVING STANDARDS | GROWTH RATES | FINANCIAL MARKET | DEBT | PENSION FUND ASSETS | PENSION SAVINGS | DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES | PENSION FUND | AVERAGE PENSION | SALARY | DISABILITY | OLD-AGE PENSION | PENSION REFORM | DEMOGRAPHIC | DEFINED BENEFIT | RATE OF RETURN | LIFE EXPECTANCIES | CURRENT PENSIONERS | SECOND PENSION | GOVERNMENT BONDS | PORTFOLIO MANAGERS | RETIREMENT | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | AVERAGE BENEFIT | LABOR MARKET | WORKING AGE | RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH | REPLACEMENT RATES | DISABILITY INSURANCE | FUND ASSETS | INSURANCE SCHEME | ASSET VALUE | FINANCIAL SITUATION | WAGES | SOCIAL INSURANCE | PENSION EXPENDITURES | SOCIAL INSURANCE FUND | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | PRESENT VALUE | RATES OF RETURNS | PENSIONS | SHARE OF EARNINGS | DEPENDENCY RATIO | PENSION SYSTEMS | EARLY RETIREMENT PRIVILEGES | FUND MANAGERS | PENSION REFORMS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATE | PENSION PROVISION | BASIC PENSIONS | PRIVATE PENSION | AVERAGE BENEFITS | INFORMAL SECTOR | MINIMUM PERIOD | ACCRUAL RATES | FERTILITY RATES | RATES OF RETURN | PRIVATE SAVINGS | PENSION | WORKING AGE POPULATION | EARNINGS MEASURES | RETIREMENT PENSIONS | YEARS OF SERVICE | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE | BENEFIT LEVELS | TYPE OF WORK | PRIVATIZATION | DISABILITY PENSIONS | PENSION SCHEME | PRIVATE EQUITIES | TAXABLE INCOME | OLD-AGE PENSIONERS | INVESTMENT RATES | INFLATION RATE | CONSUMER | CONTRIBUTION PERIODS | AVERAGE WAGE | INCOME SOURCE | YOUNGER WORKERS | UNEMPLOYED | TRANSACTION | INCOME LEVEL | CAPITAL MARKET | BENEFIT FORMULAS | INCOME | EARLY RETIREMENT | RISK DIVERSIFICATION | ANNUITY | FUND PERFORMANCE | INCOMES | PUBLIC SYSTEM | SECURITIES | EMPLOYEE | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE CENTER | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | PENSION SYSTEM REFORMS | DOMESTIC ECONOMIES | INCOME LEVELS | PROBABILITY | PUBLIC FINANCES | SUPPLEMENTARY PENSION | DEPOSITS | ASSET MANAGEMENT | INFLATION | NATIONAL ECONOMY | GOVERNMENT SECURITIES | PENSION SPENDING | RETIREMENT AGES | WORKING PENSIONERS | WITHDRAWAL | POLITICAL RISK | PENSION EXPENDITURE | PENSION LAW | PENSION ENTITLEMENT | TAX | AVERAGE EARNINGS | OCCUPATIONAL PENSION | MARKET RISK | PENSION SCHEMES | PRIVATE PENSION FUNDS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | TRANSACTION COSTS | PENSION CONTRIBUTION | TRADE UNIONS | RETIRED | DEPENDENCY RATIOS | RETIREES | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS | SOCIAL SECURITY | INTEREST RATE | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFIT | CONTRIBUTION RATES | CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT | HEALTH INSURANCE FUND | FINANCES | FUNDED ACCOUNT | PUBLIC PENSION | STATE PENSION | CURRENT PENSION | NATURAL RESOURCES | CALCULATIONS | PENSION SECURITY | MARKET PARTICIPANTS | PUBLIC DEBT | UNEMPLOYMENT | ADMINISTRATIVE CHARGES | BORROWING | EQUITIES | INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT | DIVERSIFICATION | FOREIGN INVESTMENT | PENSIONABLE AGE | PRIVATE PENSION FUND | EARNINGS HISTORY | PENSION INSURANCE | BOOM GENERATION | AGING POPULATIONS | PRODUCTIVITY | DEBT SECURITIES
Book
1994, Occasional paper, ISBN 9781557754110, Volume 113, vii, 117
Poland's economy rebounded dramatically in 1992-93, several years after the nation embarded on a comprehensive program of economic transformation. This paper... 
Poland Economic conditions | Poland Economic policy
Book
1995, Occasional paper, ISBN 1557755191, Volume 127, vii, 69
Four papers analyze the process of transition to a market economy in the Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia through early 1995. 
Europe, Eastern Economic conditions | Europe, Eastern Economic policy | Economic stabilization
Book
1987, ISBN 9780939934935, xi, 336
Written by Margaret Garritsen de Vries, former Historian of the IMF, the book describes the policies and activities the IMF has pursued in helping members... 
International finance | International Monetary Fund | Balance of payments | Adjustment Process
Book
1987, Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund), ISBN 9780939934843, Volume no. 52., 46 p. cm. --
Following a severe balance of payments crisis in the late 1970s, in January 1980 Turkey embarked on a far reaching stabilization and structural adjustment... 
Turkey Economic conditions | Fiscal policy | Turkey Economic policy
Book
2011, ISBN 9780821389430, xxii, 294
The Great Recession of 2009-11 was not simply a severe business cycle slowdown or even a combined credit, housing, and asset market collapse. It left permanent... 
Global Financial Crisis, 2008-2009 | Economic policy | Recessions | Economic development | Economics | INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY | GLOBAL MARKETS | LABOR MARKETS | STRUCTURAL REFORMS | CORPORATE TAX | CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE | BUSINESS CYCLE | PRIVATE CONSUMPTION | PRIVATE CREDIT | GOVERNMENT DEBT | ECONOMIC POLICY | ASSETS | UNEMPLOYMENT RATES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT | INTEREST RATES | CONSUMER DURABLES | INDEBTEDNESS | TAX REFORM | MONETARY POLICIES | PROTECTIONIST MEASURES | MARKET SEGMENTS | SLOWDOWN | CENTRAL BANK | REGULATORY REFORM | TAX RATE | SECTOR REFORM | LIQUIDITY | DISCOUNT RATE | FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS | PRIVATE INVESTMENT | OIL EXPORTERS | INTERNATIONAL RESERVE | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | OUTPUT RESPONSE | INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT | INVESTMENT RATIOS | DEVALUATION | REAL EFFECTIVE EXCHANGE RATES | FISCAL CONSOLIDATION | ARBITRAGE | FOOD PRICES | TRADING SYSTEM | DEVELOPING ECONOMIES | CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT | CAPITAL FLOWS | BANK CREDIT | TRADE OPENNESS | DEVELOPING ECONOMY | GLOBAL IMBALANCES | RECESSION | GLOBALIZATION | GROWTH RATES | EXCESS SUPPLY | GLOBAL ECONOMY | CLIENT COUNTRIES | COMMON CURRENCY | FISCAL POLICIES | FISCAL DEFICITS | INCOME TAX | MARKET SEGMENT | CAPITAL ADEQUACY | IMPORT PROTECTION | EXTERNAL DEMAND | CURRENT ACCOUNT POSITIONS | TRADE DEFICITS | GOVERNMENT BONDS | OUTPUT | CREDITWORTHINESS | EMERGING ECONOMIES | INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ARCHITECTURE | LABOR MARKET | LEVERAGE | SURPLUS COUNTRIES | UNCERTAINTY | REGIONAL MARKETS | MACROECONOMIC POLICY | CENTRAL BANKS | EXCHANGE RATES | IMPORTS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | STRUCTURAL REFORM | OUTPUT DECLINE | EXPOSURE | EXCHANGE RATE | DEPRESSION | TRADE PATTERNS | EXOGENOUS SHOCKS | DEPENDENCY RATIO | FINANCIAL CRISES | OIL PRICE | PUBLIC EXPENDITURES | CONSOLIDATION | CAPITAL FLOW | DEREGULATION | GLOBAL DEMAND | FEDERAL RESERVE | GLOBAL ECONOMIES | TAX REFORMS | COMPETITIVENESS | GLOBAL FINANCE | COLLATERAL | FINANCIAL VULNERABILITY | FISCAL POLICY | RESERVE CURRENCY | DOMESTIC REAL INTEREST RATES | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | NATIONAL SAVING | PENSION | CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICITS | BANK GOVERNORS | MONETARY POLICY | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE | INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS | MORTGAGES | FINANCIAL REFORM | STEADY STATE | RISK CAPITAL | BANKING SYSTEMS | DEBT CRISIS | FINANCIAL MARKETS | FINANCIAL STABILITY | ADVANCED ECONOMIES | INTERNATIONAL TRADE | CAPITAL INFLOWS | CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCES | EQUILIBRIUM | FINANCIAL SECTOR | CENTRAL BANK POLICY | STOCK MARKET CAPITALIZATION | DOMESTIC CREDIT | PUBLIC SPENDING | IMPORT | NATURAL RESOURCE | ADVANCED COUNTRIES | COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY | REAL DEPRECIATION | IMPORT DEMAND | INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES | BALANCE SHEETS | DEBT SERVICE | MACROECONOMIC STABILIZATION | EXCHANGE RATE FLEXIBILITY | COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE CENTER | GROWTH PERFORMANCE | OUTPUT GAPS | CURRENT ACCOUNT | DEBT SUSTAINABILITY | FINANCIAL CRISIS | LIBERALIZATION OF TRADE | CAPITAL ACCUMULATION | DOMESTIC DEBT | FLOWS OF CAPITAL | INFLATION | EQUITY MARKETS | GOVERNMENT SECURITIES | INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS | LIBERALIZATION | COMPETITIVE EXCHANGE RATE | EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES | FINANCIAL VOLATILITY | SURPLUS | FOREIGN RESERVES | FISCAL IMBALANCES | PERSISTENT UNEMPLOYMENT | MONIES | RECESSIONS | POVERTY REDUCTION | EXCESS CAPACITY | EXTERNAL DEFICITS | OIL-EXPORTING COUNTRIES | STOCK MARKET | FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS | SECTOR LIBERALIZATION | ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT | CURRENT ACCOUNT SURPLUSES | INTEREST RATE | OPEN ECONOMIES | MARKET SHARES | SLACK | SHORTFALLS | EMERGING MARKET | IMBALANCE | CURRENT ACCOUNT IMBALANCES | ASSET PRICES | HUMAN CAPITAL | JOINT VENTURE | PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP | AGGREGATE DEMAND | NATURAL RESOURCES | PUBLIC DEBT | PENSION LIABILITIES | INFLATIONARY PRESSURE | ECONOMIES OF SCALE | FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT | INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM | BANKING SECTOR | GROSS NATIONAL INCOME | EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES | WORLD ECONOMY | EMERGING-MARKET | HARMONIZATION | GLOBAL MARKET | SOVEREIGN DEBT | EXPORT MARKETS | EXPORT PERFORMANCE | SLOW GROWTH | INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY | DOMESTIC DEMAND | INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
Book
1995, ISBN 0521472989, xiv, 382
For 25 years, theory about the causes of, and possible solutions to, the problem of unemployment has been dominated by Phelps' and Friedman's natural rate of... 
Effect of inflation on | Unemployment
Book
2009, ISBN 0821379712, xv, 225
Closing the Coverage Gap discusses how social pensions and other retirement income transfers can be used to close the coverage gap of mandatory pension... 
Old age pensions | Social security | Retirement income | Government policy | PENSION AGE | LABOR MARKETS | PENSION COVERAGE | INCOME GROUP | NATIONAL POPULATION | HEALTH ECONOMICS | SOCIAL PENSIONS | ECONOMIC ANALYSIS | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | MINIMUM WAGE | POLICY ANALYSIS | SOCIAL RETURNS | ECONOMIC GROWTH | LOW INCOME | CASH TRANSFERS | POLICY FRAMEWORK | PUBLIC POLICY | SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS | MINIMUM PENSION | PENSION PLAN | PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT | ELDERLY POPULATION | COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS | SOCIAL PENSION | CONTRIBUTION | SAFETY NET | SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS | BASIC PENSION | OLDER WOMEN | TAKE-UP RATE | URBAN AREAS | HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS | OLDER PEOPLE | TAX RATE | POOR FAMILIES | CHILD CARE | MANDATORY CONTRIBUTION | ADMINISTRATIVE DATA | PENSION ACCOUNT | MINIMUM PENSIONS | VULNERABILITY | CLIMATE CHANGE | INCOME SECURITY | PUBLIC PENSIONS | RISK AVERSION | DEVELOPING COUNTRIES | PENSION ISSUES | POLICY GUIDANCE | DISCOUNT RATES | RETIREMENT AGE | PUBLIC PENSION SCHEMES | SOCIAL POLICY | CREDITS | MARGINAL TAX RATES | PENSION REFORM PRIMER | PENSION WEALTH | PENSION SYSTEM | HEALTH INSURANCE | CONTRIBUTIONS | ELDERLY PERSONS | FAMILY STRUCTURES | POPULATION AGEING | POVERTY LEVELS | TRADITIONAL FAMILY | WORTH | SELF-EMPLOYMENT | CASH TRANSFER | LIVING STANDARDS | COMMODITY | OLD-AGE | SALARY | LONG-TERM SAVING | FAMILY ALLOWANCES | WITHDRAWAL RATE | DISABILITY | OLD-AGE PENSION | HUMAN RIGHTS | PENSION REFORM | COST ESTIMATES | RETIREMENT | LABOR MARKET TRANSITIONS | LOW-INCOME WORKERS | NATIONAL COMMITTEE | LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION | AVERAGE BENEFIT | LABOR MARKET | WORKING AGE | REPLACEMENT RATES | FINANCIAL PLANNER | LOW FERTILITY | BENEFICIARIES | DEVELOPMENT BANK | INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY | WAGES | LABOR SUPPLY | NATIONAL PENSION | PENSION PROGRAMS | RURAL AREAS | URBANIZATION | SOCIAL INSURANCE | NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE | GLOBAL POPULATION | INFORMATION SYSTEMS | ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | PENSIONS | CITIZEN | MIGRATION | PENSION SYSTEMS | ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT | SKILLED WORKERS | PUBLIC EXPENDITURES | PENSION REFORMS | SOCIAL ASSISTANCE | POLICY RESEARCH | BASIC PENSIONS | SAVINGS | ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS | PRIVATE PENSION PROVIDERS | SOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT | PRIVATE PENSION | LOW-INCOME INDIVIDUALS | FERTILITY RATES | RATES OF RETURN | CONTINGENCIES | GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT | PENSION | CITIZENS | PRACTITIONERS | FAMILY POLICIES | INDIGENOUS PEOPLE | PENSION SCHEME | NATIONAL PLAN | MINORITY | PENSION PROVISIONS | LIMITED RESOURCES | CHRONIC POVERTY | QUALITY OF SERVICES | DISSEMINATION | NUTRITION | PROBABILITIES | PUBLIC ECONOMICS | ECONOMIC POLICIES | POVERTY RATES | PENSION ARRANGEMENTS | ORPHANS | INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION | INCOME LEVEL | MANDATES | BENEFIT FORMULAS | RETIREMENT INCOMES | RETIREMENT INCOME | EARLY RETIREMENT | PENSION TRANSFERS | POVERTY RATE | SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATIONS | IMPORTANT POLICY | BEST PRACTICES | PENSION RIGHTS | GENERAL POPULATION | ELDERLY | RETIREMENT-INCOME | MINISTRY OF EDUCATION | CURRENT PROGRAMS | POOR INDIVIDUALS | VOLUNTARY SAVINGS | INCOME LEVELS | PROBABILITY | FAMILY SUPPORT | LEGAL STATUS | MARKET ECONOMIES | SOURCES OF INCOME | RETIREMENT AGES | PENSION BENEFITS | PENSION REGULATION | WITHDRAWAL | SAFETY NETS | ECONOMIC COSTS | LOW-INCOME | SOUND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT | IMPACTS OF POPULATION | AVERAGE EARNINGS | PENSION INCOME | MATERNITY LEAVE | PENSION SCHEMES | SAVINGS INSTRUMENTS | SOCIAL EXPENDITURES | POPULATION GROUPS | LIFE EXPECTANCY | LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES | SENIOR | BABIES | PRIVATE INVESTMENTS | VALUATION | POVERTY REDUCTION | POLICY DEVELOPMENT | RETIRED | HOUSEHOLD INCOME | SOCIAL PROTECTION | LABOR FORCE | SOCIAL SECURITY | ASSET HOLDINGS | INTEREST RATE | CONTRIBUTION RATES | FINANCIAL SUPPORT | OLD AGE | SOCIAL WELFARE | KNOWLEDGE GAP | PUBLIC PENSION | FINANCIAL ASPECTS | NATURAL RESOURCES | INVESTMENT DECISION | CALCULATIONS | ADMINISTRATIVE CHARGES | LONG-TERM SAVINGS | FIXED COST | TRADE UNION | FINANCIAL POLICY | POLICY MAKERS | HUMAN RIGHT | SMALL ENTERPRISES | BUDGETING | OLDER MEN | SOCIAL AFFAIRS | DEFINED CONTRIBUTIONS
Book
Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, 2010, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp. 399 - 408
Adding oil prices to the monetary model of exchange rates, we find that oil prices significantly explain movements in the value of the U.S. dollar (USD)... 
Oil prices | Exchange rates | U.S. dollar | Monetary model | TESTS | US ECONOMY | LONG-RUN | MONETARY-POLICY | US dollar | SHOCKS | MACROECONOMY | COINTEGRATION | RATE MODELS | ECONOMICS | EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONSHIPS | UNEMPLOYMENT | Exchange rates Monetary model Oil prices U.S. dollar | Prices and rates | Dollar (United States) | Petroleum industry | Analysis | Foreign exchange
Journal Article
2000, IMF occasional paper, ISBN 9781557758941, Volume no. 195, ix, 65
The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank is one of just a few regional central banks in the world and the only one where the member countries have pooled all their... 
Monetary unions | Eastern Caribbean Central Bank History | History | Eastern Caribbean Currency Union History
Book
2012, Africa Development Forum series, ISBN 9780821395127, xxiv, 277
Structural transformation and rural change revisited challenges for a late developing country in a Globalizing World is an extremely thorough and important... 
Economic aspects | Rural development | Agriculture | Developing countries Economic conditions | Economic development | economic environment | world economy | Market liberalizationaggregate demand | inflation rates | World Trade Organization | national accounts | Real interest rates | growth performance | GDP | trade policies | WTO | external factors | inventories | exchange rates | high unemployment | financial integration | Free Trade | OPEC | savings | primary products | oil prices | Development Economics | Tariffs | Energy prices | capital inflows | unemployment | Transport | potential output | capital flows | income growth | trade liberalization | external environment | GNP | business cycle | Economic reform | resource allocation | Global conditions | High inflation | macroeconomic stability | exchange rate | financial markets | Forecasts | growth rates | financial system | technology transfer | business cycles | economic instability | capital markets | monetary policy | low inflation | producers | Real interest | trade volumes | dividends | primary commodities | Economic integration | financial sector | low-income countries | Policy reforms | diversification | CPI | financial institutions | recessions | Generalized System of Preferences | Consumer price index | capital goods | macroeconomic policies | Purchasing power | bonds | Non-OECD countries | agricultural protection | industrial countries | Trade | developing world | product markets | Foreign direct investments | Uruguay Round | inflation performance | middle-income countries | imports | Treasury bills | high premium | barriers to entry | market prices | gross debt | trade barriers | production costs | private sector | structural unemployment | local currency | labor costs | debt | international trade | Purchasing power parity | Interest rates | income | international markets | low interest rates | Economic Cooperation | global economy | exports | Real GDP | Gross domestic product | recession | telecommunications | labor market | short-term interest rates | output growth | Inflation | developing country | oil | productivity | export growth | investment rates | consumers | fiscal pressures | growth prospects | oil exporters | annual growth | developing regions | labor force | transition economies | open economies | developing countries | production processes | regulatory framework | monetary policies | per capita incomes | international experience
Book