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British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, 02/2009, Volume 102, Issue 2, pp. 179 - 190
Journal Article
Anesthesiology, ISSN 0003-3022, 07/2014, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp. 9 - 17
Journal Article
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, ISSN 1472-0299, 11/2018, Volume 19, Issue 11, pp. 600 - 606
Epidural blocks are used for relief of chronic pain, labour pain and postoperative pain as well as for surgical anaesthesia. Effect can be targeted at the... 
Anaesthetic technique | epidural | caudal | regional anaesthesia
Journal Article
Journal Article
Pain Physician, ISSN 1533-3159, 2008, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp. 801 - 815
Background: The pathophysiology of lumbar radicular pain is a subject of ongoing research. The prevalence of sciatica or radiculitis ranges from 1.2% to 43%.... 
Local anesthetic | Epidural steroids | Lower extremity pain | Radiculitis | Disc herniation | Chronic low back pain | Caudal epidural injections | INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS | caudal epidural injections | disc herniation | MEDIAL BRANCH BLOCKS | BLIND CONTROLLED-TRIAL | NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA | radiculitis | LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY | CLINICAL NEUROLOGY | NEURONS FOLLOWING APPLICATION | NEUROPATHIC PAIN | SPINAL NERVE ROOTS | local anesthetic | NUCLEUS-PULPOSUS | ANESTHESIOLOGY | epidural steroids | lower extremity pain | FACET JOINT PAIN | Steroids - administration & dosage | Intervertebral Disc Displacement - complications | Humans | Middle Aged | Fluoroscopy - methods | Male | Nerve Block - methods | Radiculopathy - complications | Low Back Pain - physiopathology | Radiculopathy - drug therapy | Low Back Pain - etiology | Radiculopathy - physiopathology | Adult | Female | Anesthetics, Local - administration & dosage | Intervertebral Disc Displacement - drug therapy | Intervertebral Disc Displacement - physiopathology | Chronic Disease - drug therapy | Disability Evaluation | Nerve Block - instrumentation | Double-Blind Method | Injections, Epidural - statistics & numerical data | Fluoroscopy - statistics & numerical data | Analgesics, Opioid - therapeutic use | Treatment Outcome | Injections, Epidural - methods | Nerve Block - statistics & numerical data | Low Back Pain - drug therapy | Aged | Pain Measurement | Drug Combinations
Journal Article
Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, 07/2016, Volume 41, Issue 13, pp. E759 - E763
Prospective study OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in the sacral hiatus based on ultrasonographic images. Caudal epidural injection... 
Anesthesia, Caudal - methods | Prospective Studies | Humans | Middle Aged | Male | Injections, Epidural - methods | Young Adult | Sacrum - anatomy & histology | Sacrum - diagnostic imaging | Aged, 80 and over | Adult | Female | Aged | Ultrasonography - methods
Journal Article
Pain Physician, ISSN 1533-3159, 2008, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp. 785 - 800
Background: Intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, fascia, muscles, and nerve root dura have been described as tissues capable of transmitting pain in... 
Controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks | Local anesthetic | Radiculitis | Disc herniation | Provocation discography | Chronic low back pain | Caudal epidural injections | Discogenic pain | Steroids | NUCLEUS PULPOSUS | caudal epidural injections | controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks | disc herniation | MEDIAL BRANCH BLOCKS | CHRONIC SPINAL PAIN | BLIND CONTROLLED-TRIAL | NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA | NERVE-ROOT | discogenic pain | radiculitis | CLINICAL NEUROLOGY | NEURONS FOLLOWING APPLICATION | NEUROPATHIC PAIN | local anesthetic | provocation discography | INTERVERTEBRAL DISC | ANESTHESIOLOGY | steroids | FACET JOINT PAIN | Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - methods | Steroids - administration & dosage | Intervertebral Disc - physiopathology | Humans | Middle Aged | Fluoroscopy - methods | Male | Nerve Block - methods | Intervertebral Disc - innervation | Low Back Pain - physiopathology | Low Back Pain - etiology | Adult | Female | Anesthetics, Local - administration & dosage | Chronic Disease - drug therapy | Disability Evaluation | Nerve Block - instrumentation | Double-Blind Method | Injections, Epidural - statistics & numerical data | Fluoroscopy - statistics & numerical data | Analgesics, Opioid - therapeutic use | Treatment Outcome | Injections, Epidural - methods | Nerve Block - statistics & numerical data | Low Back Pain - drug therapy | Aged | Pain Measurement
Journal Article
Pain Physician, ISSN 1533-3159, 09/2015, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp. E939 - E1004
Background: Epidural injections have been used since 1901 in managing low back pain and sciatica. Spinal pain, disability, health, and economic impact continue... 
Local anesthetic | Spinal pain | Epidural injections | Transforaminal epidural injections | Caudal epidural injections | Interlaminar epidural injections | Chronic pain | Steroids | caudal epidural injections | interlaminar epidural injections | LOW-BACK-PAIN | LUMBAR RADICULAR PAIN | BONE-MINERAL DENSITY | spinal pain | epidural injections | INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION | RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL | CONTRAST FLOW PATTERNS | DIGITAL-SUBTRACTION-ANGIOGRAPHY | CLINICAL NEUROLOGY | ACTIVE-CONTROLLED-TRIAL | transforaminal epidural injections | local anesthetic | ANESTHESIOLOGY | steroids | CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE | PREVENT NEUROLOGIC COMPLICATIONS | Low Back Pain - epidemiology | Chronic Pain - diagnosis | Anesthesia, Epidural - methods | Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic - methods | Anesthesia, Spinal - methods | Humans | Spinal Stenosis - epidemiology | Injections, Epidural | Intervertebral Disc Displacement - epidemiology | Chronic Pain - epidemiology | Radiculopathy - drug therapy | Intervertebral Disc Displacement - drug therapy | Radiculopathy - epidemiology | Evidence-Based Medicine - methods | Reproducibility of Results | Chronic Pain - drug therapy | Pain Management - methods | Analgesics - administration & dosage | Treatment Outcome | Radiculopathy - diagnosis | Low Back Pain - diagnosis | Low Back Pain - drug therapy | Intervertebral Disc Displacement - diagnosis | Spinal Stenosis - drug therapy | Spinal Stenosis - diagnosis
Journal Article