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Journal Article
Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, 2009, Volume 47, Issue 7, pp. 753 - 757
The current study describes the development and validation of a new subscale to be used with the BIS/BAS scales ( ). This subscale measures lowered approach... 
Approach motivation | BIS/BAS | Nonreward | Behavioural activation system | Frustration | BEHAVIORAL ACTIVATION | PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL | INHIBITION | BAS | VALIDITY
Journal Article
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, 05/2012, Volume 97, Issue 4, pp. 393 - 401
Journal Article
REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE PSICOLOGIA, ISSN 0120-0534, 2007, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp. 609 - 621
This article describes Abram Amsel's [1922-2006] contributions to the study of learning in situations involving surprising reward omissions. Emphasis is placed... 
NEUROSCIENCE | RATS | MECHANISMS | successive negative contrast | LESIONS | FRUSTRATIVE NONREWARD | CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE | PSYCHOLOGY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY | PARTIAL-REINFORCEMENT | opioid system | DYNAMICS | CORTICOSTERONE ELEVATION | paradoxical reward effects
Journal Article
Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, 07/2004, Volume 110, Issue 7, pp. 501 - 513
Animals have been shown to respond to frustration with increased aggression and activity. Aversive environmental conditions are also known to affect reaction... 
WELFARE | SHOCK | RESPONSES | NONREWARD | ZOOLOGY | BEHAVIOR | ACQUISITION | BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES | LEARNED HELPLESSNESS | STRESS | CONTROLLABILITY | FOWL
Journal Article
Artificial Life, ISSN 1064-5462, 01/2004, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp. 65 - 81
Journal Article
動物心理学研究, ISSN 0916-8419, 06/2006, Volume 56, pp. 35 - 54
Early experimental accounts of learning assumed that reinforcement strengthened associative bonds whereas nonreinforcement weakened them.... 
Journal Article
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, ISSN 0022-5002, 03/2001, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp. 135 - 164
Journal Article